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test-the-future.rst 25KB

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Test Slide

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Zuul

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Red Hat

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OpenStack

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OpenDev

"most insane CI infrastructure I've ever been a part of"

  -- Alex Gaynor

"like the SpaceX of CI"

  -- Emily Dunham

Zuul

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Ansible

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What Zuul does

  • "Speculative Future State"
  • multiple repositories
  • integrated deliverable
  • gated commits
  • open tooling
  • nobody is special
  • testing like deployment

OpenStack Is

  • Federated
  • Distributed
  • Large
  • Open
  • Not Alone

Federated

  • Hundreds of involved companies
  • No 'main' company
  • "Decisions are made by those who show up"
  • Union of priorities/use cases

Impact of being Federated

  • No company can appoint people to positions in the project
  • The project cannot fire anyone
  • Variable background of contributors
  • Heavy reliance on consensus

Distributed

  • There is no office
  • Contributor base is global
  • Multitude of contributor backgrounds

Impact of being Distributed

  • Tooling must empower all contributors, regardless of background, skill level or cultural context
  • Heavy preference for text-based communication
  • Cannot assume US-centric needs or solutions
  • "Accept patches from random people on the internet"

Large numbers of

  • Contributors (~2k in any given 6 month period)
  • Changes
  • Code Repositories (2082 as of this morning)

Not Bragging About Scale

OpenStack Scale Comparison

  • 2KJPH (2,000 jobs per hour)
  • Build Nodes from 16 Regions of 5 Public and 3 Private OpenStack Clouds
  • Rackspace, Internap, OVH, Vexxhost, CityCloud
  • Linaro (ARM), Limestone, Packethost
  • 10,000 changes merged per month

OpenStack Scale Comparison

  • 2KJPH (2,000 jobs per hour)
  • Build Nodes from 16 Regions of 5 Public and 3 Private OpenStack Clouds
  • Rackspace, Internap, OVH, Vexxhost, CityCloud
  • Linaro (ARM), Limestone, Packethost
  • 10,000 changes merged per month
    • By comparison, our friends at the amazing project Ansible received 13,000 changes and had merged 8,000 of them in its first 4 years.

Impact of scale

  • Empower teams to take care of themselves (distributed)
  • Efficiency gained from shared solutions (centralized)
  • Zuul supports per-repo config, central config, and multiple tenants
  • One Zuul install is all you need for all of BMW or ExxonMobil or IBM

Four Opens

  • Open Source (we don't hold back Enterprise features, we don't cripple things)
  • Open Design (design process open to all, decisions are not made inside company doors)
  • Open Development (public source code, public code review, all code is reviewed and gated)
  • Open Community (lazy consensus, democratic leadership from participants, public logged meetings in IRC, public archived mailing lists)

Impact of Four Opens

  • Tooling is not exempt
  • Fifth Open - Open Operations - all infrastructure is run in the Open, via GitOps

We're Not Alone

  • Dependencies (libvirt/kvm/xen, mysql/pg, rabbit, python/javascript, ceph/gluster, ansible/salt/puppet/chef, ovs/odl)
  • Adjacencies (kubernetes, ansible, terraform, opnfv, spinnaker)
  • Vendors (plugins, products, services, distros)

Developer Process In a Nutshell

  • Code Review - nobody has direct commit/push access
  • 3rd-Party CI for vendors
  • Gated Commits

Developer Workflow

  • Who has submitted a patch?
  • Who wants to?
  • (Who is here because the name of this talk is weird?)
Hack             Review              Test

========= ========== ==========

push approve

+-------------+ +-------------+ | | | |

+------+--+ +--v----+--+ +--v-------+ | | | | | | | $EDITOR | | Gerrit | | Zuul | | | | | | | +------^--+ +--+----^--+ +--+-------+ | | | | +-------------+ +-------------+ clone merge

Gerrit

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but zuul is doing a lot of work behind the scenes, and if you look closer, this is what you see

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Zuul is not New

  • Has been in Production for OpenStack for Six Years
  • Zuul v3 first release where not-OpenStack is first-class use case
  • Zuul is now an OpenStack Foundation Pilot Project

Not just for OpenStack

  • Zuul is in production for OpenStack (in OpenStack VMs)

Also running at:

  • BMW (control plane in OpenShift)
  • GoDaddy (control plane in Kubernetes)
  • GoodMoney (control plane in EKS, adding GKE)
  • Le Bon Coin
  • Easystack
  • TungstenFabric
  • OpenLab
  • Red Hat
  • others ...

Zuul in a nutshell

  • Listens for code events
  • Prepares appropriate job config and git repo states
  • Allocates nodes for test jobs
  • Pushes git repo states to nodes
  • Runs user-defined Ansible playbooks
  • Collects/reports results
  • Potentially merges change

All in Service of Gating

No Tests / Manual Tests

  • No test automation exists or ...
  • Developer runs test suite before pushing code
  • Prone to developer skipping tests for "trivial" changes
  • Doesn't scale organizationally

Periodic Testing

  • Developers push changes directly to shared branch
  • CI system runs tests from time to time - report if things still work
  • "Who broke the build?"
  • Leads to hacks like NVIE model

Post-Merge Testing

  • Developers push changes directly to shared branch
  • CI system is triggered by push - reports if push broke something
  • Frequently batched / rolled up
  • Easier to diagnose which change broke things
  • Reactive - the bad changes are already in

Pre-Review Testing

  • Changes are pushed to code review (Gerrit Change, GitHub PR, etc)
  • CI system is triggered by code review change creation
  • Test results inform review decisions
  • Proactive - testing code before it lands
  • Reviewers can get bored waiting for tests
  • Only tests code as written, not potential result of merging code

Gating

  • Changes are pushed to code review
  • Gating system is triggered by code review approval
  • Gating system merges code IFF tests pass
  • Proactive - testing code before it lands
  • Future state resulting from merge of code is tested
  • Reviewers can fire-and-forget safely

Mix and Match

  • Zuul supports all of those modes
  • Zuul users frequently combine them
  • Run pre-review (check) and gating (gate) on each change
  • Post-merge/post-tag for release/publication automation
  • Periodic for catching bitrot

Multi-repository integration

  • Multiple source repositories are needed for deliverable
  • Future state to be tested is the future state of all involved repos

To test proposed future state

  • Get tip of each project. Merge appropriate change(s). Test.
  • Changes must be serialized, otherwise state under test is invalid.
  • Integrated deliverable repos share serialized queue

Speculative Execution

  • Correct parallel processing of serialized future states
  • Create virtual serial queue of changes for each deliverable
  • Assume each change will pass its tests
  • Test successive changes with previous changes applied to starting state

Nearest Non-Failing Change

(aka 'The Jim Blair Algorithm')

  • If a change fails, move it aside
  • Cancel all test jobs behind it in the queue
  • Reparent queue items on the nearest non-failing change
  • Restart tests with new state

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Explicit Cross-Project Dependencies

  • Developers can mark changes as being dependent
  • Depends-On: footer - in commit or PR
  • Zuul uses depends-on when constructing virtual serial queue
  • Will not merge changes in gate before depends-on changes
  • Works cross-repo AND cross-source

Lock Step Changes

  • Circular Dependencies are not supported on purpose
  • Rolling upgrades across interdependent services
  • HOWEVER - many valid use cases (go/rust/c++) - support will be coming

Live Configuration Changes

Zuul is a distributed system, with a distributed configuration.

Zuul Startup

  • Read config file

Zuul Startup

  • Read config file
  • Ask mergers for branches of each repo

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Zuul Startup

  • Read config file
  • Ask mergers for branches of each repo
  • Ask mergers for .zuul.yaml for each branch

    of each repo

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When .zuul.yaml Changes

  • Zuul looks for changes to .zuul.yaml
  • Asks mergers for updated content
  • Splices into configuration used for that change
  • Works with cross-repo dependencies

    ("This change depends on a change to the job definition")

Zuul Architecture

Zuul is comprised of several services (mostly python3)

  • zuul-scheduler
  • zuul-executor
  • zuul-merger
  • zuul-web
  • zuul-fingergw
  • zuul-dashboard (javascript/react)
  • zuul-proxy (c++)
  • nodepool-launcher
  • nodepool-builder
  • RDBMS
  • Gearman
  • Zookeeper

Where Does Job Content Run?

Nodepool

  • A separate service that works very closely with Zuul
  • Zuul requires Nodepool but Nodepool can be used independently
  • Creates and destroys zero or more node resources
  • Resources can include VMs, Containers, COE contexts or Bare Metals
  • Static driver for allocating pre-existing nodes to jobs
  • Optionally periodically builds images and uploads to clouds

Nodepool Launcher

Where build nodes should come from

  • OpenStack
  • Static
  • Kubernetes Pod
  • Kubernetes Namespace
  • AWS

In work / coming soon:

  • Azure
  • GCE

What about job content?

  • Written in Ansible
  • Ansible is excellent at running one or more tasks in one or more places
  • The answer to "how do I" is almost always "Ansible"

Logging

  • Zuul doesn't know about logging - only about URLs to report
  • Job Ansible content does something with logs
  • Job content tells Zuul what URL to report to user
  • Allows for some really cool patterns

Live Web Preview

  • For static websites, publish built content and report url

https://review.openstack.org/#/c/648838 http://logs.openstack.org/38/648838/7/check/zuul-build-dashboard/96253e1/npm/html/

Jobs

  • Define node types needed from nodepool
  • Define which ansible playbooks to run
  • Jobs may be defined centrally or in the repo being tested
  • Jobs have contextual variants that simplify configuration
  • Jobs definitions support inheritance

Important Links

Questions

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How do you use this thing?

tilt

Configuration

Job

Simple Job

Simple Job Inheritance

Inheritance Works Like An Onion

  • pre-run playbooks run in order of inheritance
  • run playbook of job runs
  • post-run playbooks run in reverse order of inheritance
  • If pre-run playbooks fail, job is re-tried
  • All post-run playbooks run - as far as pre-run playbooks got

Inheritance Example

For tox-py36 job

  • base pre-run playbooks/base/pre.yaml
  • tox pre-run playbooks/setup-tox.yaml
  • tox run playbooks/tox.yaml
  • tox post-run playbooks/fetch-tox-output.yaml
  • base post-run playbooks/base/post-ssh.yaml
  • base post-run playbooks/base/post-logs.yaml

Simple Job Variant

Nodesets for Multi-node Jobs

Multi-node Job

  • nodesets are provided to Ansible for jobs in inventory

Multi-node Ceph Job Content

Projects

  • Projects are git repositories
  • Specify a set of jobs for each pipeline
  • golang git repo naming as been adopted:
zuul@ubuntu-xenial:~$ find /home/zuul/src -mindepth 3 -maxdepth 3 -type d
/home/zuul/src/git.openstack.org/openstack-infra/shade
/home/zuul/src/git.openstack.org/openstack/keystoneauth
/home/zuul/src/git.openstack.org/openstack/os-client-config
/home/zuul/src/github.com/ansible/ansible

Project Config

  • Specify a set of jobs for each pipeline

Project with Local Variant

Project with More Local Variants

Project with Many Local Variants

Project With Central and Local Config

Project with Job Dependencies

Playbooks

  • Jobs run playbooks
  • Playbooks may be defined centrally or in the repo being tested
  • Playbooks can use roles from current or other Zuul repos or Galaxy
  • Playbooks are not allowed to execute content on 'localhost'

devstack-tempest Run Playbook

Simple Shell Playbook

Test Like Production

If you use Ansible for deployment, your test and deployment processes and playbooks are the same

What if you don't use Ansible?

OpenStack Infra Control Plane uses Puppet (for now)

Secrets

  • Inspired by Kubernetes Secrets API
  • Projects can add named encrypted secrets to their .zuul.yaml file
  • Jobs can request to use secrets by name
  • Jobs using secrets are not reconfigured speculatively
  • Secrets can only be used by the same project they are defined in
  • Public key per project: {{ zuul_url }}/{{ tenant }}/{{ project }}.pub
::

GET https://zuul.openstack.org/openstack-infra/shade.pub

Secret Example (note, no admins had to enable this)

Secret Example

Important Links

Questions

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Presentty

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Presentty