Merge "Add spec to mitigate OSSN-0075"

Zuul 2018-06-07 20:24:20 +00:00 committed by Gerrit Code Review
commit 9dddf33103
1 changed files with 276 additions and 0 deletions

View File

@ -0,0 +1,276 @@
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
Mitigate OSSN-0075
OpenStack Security Note `OSSN-0075`_, "Deleted Glance image IDs may be
reassigned", was made public on 13 September 2016. The current situation is
that due to a lack of agreement of how to fix it, we've left operators in a bad
state: our advice is that soft-deleted rows in the 'images' table in the Glance
database should *not* be purged from the database, yet at the same time, the
``glance-manage`` tool deletes such rows without warning.
Problem description
Briefly, the problem is that Glance has always allowed a user with permission
to make the image-create call the option of specifying an image_id. If the
specified image_id clashed with an existing image_id, the image-create
operation would fail; otherwise, the specified image_id would be applied to the
new image. Consistency is enforced by a uniqueness constraint on the 'id'
column in the 'images' table in the database. Since Glance database entries
are soft-deleted, a proposed image_id will be checked against all image_ids
that were assigned since the last purge of the 'images' table.
As described in `OSSN-0075`_, this problem becomes a security exploit when (a)
a popular public or community image is deleted, (b) the database is purged,
and (c) a user creates a new image with that same image_id. Users consuming an
image by image_id, which is the way Nova and Cinder consume images, may then
wind up booting virtual machines using an image different from the one they
intend to use.
Note that the new image would have its own data and checksum that would be
different from the original data and checksum, but there would be no way for
Nova, for instance, to know that these had changed. Were someone to boot a
server using the image_id, Nova would receive image data and then verify the
checksum against whatever checksum Glance has recorded as associated with the
image, which would be the *new* checksum.
The idea that once an image goes to 'active' status, the (image_id, image data,
checksum) will not change is called *image immutability*. It's important to
note that image immutability is required for Glance or else it cannot function
as an image catalog. If each consumer had to keep track of the image_id *and*
checksum *and* other essential properties in order to verify the downloaded
data, then there'd be no point in having Glance maintain this information.
.. note::
The primary use case for allowing end-users to specify an image_id at the
time of image creation is to make it easy to find the "same" image data
(that is, the data is bit-for-bit identical although it's stored in
different locations) in different regions of a cloud. It's important to
note that the "sameness" of images in different regions is *not* guaranteed
by Glance. (A Glance installation can guarantee the immutability of images
within its own region, but it has no way of knowing what's happening in
other regions.) Thus, under the current situation, when an end user relies
on the image_id as the guarantor that they're getting the "same" data in
different cloud regions, the end user is actually relying upon the
trustworthiness of the *image owner*.
This is a separate issue from `OSSN-0075`_ and is independent of whether or
not the Glance database is ever purged. We point it out as something for
operators to keep in mind. To be clear about the issue, here's an example.
Suppose that a cloud operator puts an image with image_id A in regions R, S,
T, though for some reason the operator does not put that image in region U.
Any cloud user in region U could create an image with image_id A in
region U. The image could then be made available to some target user by
image sharing, or with the entire cloud by giving it 'community' visibility.
An operator can avoid this scenario by creating an image record with
image_id A in region U and not uploading any data to it. The image will
remain in 'queued' status, and if the visibility is not changed to 'public'
or 'community', the image will not appear in any end user's image-list
There is also room for end user education here, namely, that image
consumers should *not* rely solely upon image_id to guarantee that they are
receiving the same image data in cross-region scenarios.
Through discussions with operators, it's clear that the ability to set the
image_id on image creation is being used out in the field, so we can't simply
block this ability. At the same time, we must allow the database to be
occasionally purged, as there is evidence that for large deployments, having a
large number of soft-deleted rows in the 'images' table affects the response
time of the image-list API call.
Proposed change
Modify the current ``glance-manage db purge`` command so that it will not purge
the images table.
Introduce a new command, ``glance-manage db purge-images-table`` to purge the
images table. The new command will take the same options as the current purge,
namely, ``--age-in-days`` and ``--max-rows``. The rationale for this being a
new command (rather than a ``--force`` option to the current command) is
twofold: (1) it's likely that the age-in-days used will be different for the
images table, and (2) given that purging the images table has a security
impact, having it as a completely separate command emphasizes this.
1. Introduce a policy governing whether or not a user is allowed to specify
the image_id at the time of image creation. The downside of this proposal
is twofold:
* it breaks backward compatibility given that this ability has been allowed
up to now in both the v1 and v2 versions of the Image API
* it breaks interoperability in that end uses will have the ability in some
clouds but not in others
A further problem with this proposal is that if the cross-region use of
a particular image_id is denied to end users, they will have to use some
other piece of image metadata for this purpose. Since cinder and nova both
use the image_id when services are requested, user workflows will have to
change to introduce an extra call to the image service to find the image
record before the image_id to pass to cinder or nova is determined.
2. Instead of introducing a new column in the images table, introduce a new
single-column table with a uniqueness constraint to record "used" UUIDs.
The image-create operation would try to insert a proposed UUID into this
table instead of the 'images' table and fail as it currently does if the
uniqueness constraint were violated. This "used" UUID table would *never*
be purged, but the glance-manage tool could continue to purge all other
This alternative has the advantage of not impacting the image-list call. It
would eventually introduce a small delay into the image-create operation,
but that's probably acceptable.
The downside is that this proposal introduces an unpurgable table that is
unbounded in size.
3. A variation on alternative #2: instead of a single-column table, have at
least a deleted_at column in addition to the image_id. This table would not
be touched by the "normal" ``glance-manage`` database purge operation.
Rather, an additional purge operation could be introduced for this table
that would purge rows that were, say, 5 years old from the table.
A problem with this suggestion is that a determined attacker could
nonetheless flood the "used" image_ids table. This is possible because
while it might make sense to limit the number of existing images a user
owns, it doesn't make sense to limit the number of deleted images a user
owns. For example, an end user who creates an image of some important
server every day, but only keeps around a week's worth, will accumulate many
deleted images (multiplied by the number of servers this is being done for),
but this is perfectly legitimate behavior. So I'm not sure how flooding the
"used" image_id table could be prevented, except by something like
rate-limiting, though that would have to be set in such a way as not to
impact legitimate use cases.
4. Introduce a new field, ``preserve_id``, for use in the images table. This
field will be for internal Glance use only and will not be exposed through
the API. This field will be null by default and will be set true whenever
the 'visibility' field of an image is set to 'public' or 'community'. There
will be no way to unset the value of the field. In addition to this, modify
the glance-manage tool so that it will never delete an entry from the images
table that has ``preserve_id`` == True.
As with alternatives 2 and 3, the database table will continue to grow, but
this growth is constrained by keeping only rows relevant to the OSSN-0075
exploit. On the other hand, all an attacker has to do is read this spec to
realize that by creating image records with community visibilty, the images
table can still be flooded with spurious image records. Thus this strategy
is too easily defeated to be worth implementing, especially as it might give
operators a false sense of security.
Data model impact
REST API impact
Security impact
This change will enhance security by providing operators with a means of
mitigating the exploit described in `OSSN-0075`_.
Notifications impact
Other end user impact
Performance Impact
The images table will grow indefinitely, though the associated tables
(image_properties, image_tags, image_members, image_locations) can be purged by
the ``glance-manage`` tool.
The images table can be partially purged at appropriate intervals.
Other deployer impact
Operators will have to monitor Glance for abnormal usage patterns and take
appropriate action.
Additionally, operators should be made aware of the cross-region version of the
OSSN-0075 exploit (as discussed in the Note in the Problem Description
Developer impact
Primary assignee:
* brian-rosmaita
Other contributors:
* undetermined
Work Items
1. Modify the ``glance-manage`` tool:
* The current behavior is that it purges all tables of soft-deleted rows.
Change the behavior so that the images table is not purged by default.
* Add a new command to purge the images table. It should take the
``--age-in-days`` and ``--max-rows`` options just like the current purge
2. update operator documentation
3. release note
No new dependencies.
Appropriate unit tests to ensure the changes to glance and the glance-manage
tool function correctly.
Documentation Impact
The Glance Administrator Guide will need to be updated.
`OSSN-0075`_: `Deleted Glance image IDs may be reassigned`.
.. _OSSN-0075: