OpenStack Orchestration (Heat)
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#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
import collections
import email
from email.mime import multipart
from email.mime import text
import os
import pkgutil
import string
from urllib import parse as urlparse
from neutronclient.common import exceptions as q_exceptions
from novaclient import api_versions
from novaclient import client as nc
from novaclient import exceptions
from oslo_config import cfg
from oslo_log import log as logging
from oslo_serialization import jsonutils
from oslo_utils import netutils
import tenacity
from heat.common import exception
from heat.common.i18n import _
from heat.engine.clients import client_exception
from heat.engine.clients import client_plugin
from heat.engine.clients import microversion_mixin
from heat.engine.clients import os as os_client
from heat.engine import constraints
LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)
CLIENT_NAME = 'nova'
class NovaClientPlugin(microversion_mixin.MicroversionMixin,
client_plugin.ClientPlugin):
deferred_server_statuses = {'BUILD',
'HARD_REBOOT',
'PASSWORD',
'REBOOT',
'RESCUE',
'RESIZE',
'REVERT_RESIZE',
'SHUTOFF',
'SUSPENDED',
'VERIFY_RESIZE'}
exceptions_module = exceptions
NOVA_API_VERSION = '2.1'
max_microversion = cfg.CONF.max_nova_api_microversion
service_types = [COMPUTE] = ['compute']
def _get_service_name(self):
return self.COMPUTE
def _create(self, version=None):
if not version:
# TODO(prazumovsky): remove all unexpected calls from tests and
# add default_version after that.
version = self.NOVA_API_VERSION
args = self._get_args(version)
client = nc.Client(version, **args)
return client
def _get_args(self, version):
endpoint_type = self._get_client_option(CLIENT_NAME, 'endpoint_type')
return {
'session': self.context.keystone_session,
'endpoint_type': endpoint_type,
'service_type': self.COMPUTE,
'region_name': self._get_region_name(),
'connect_retries': cfg.CONF.client_retry_limit,
'http_log_debug': self._get_client_option(CLIENT_NAME,
'http_log_debug')
}
def get_max_microversion(self):
if not self.max_microversion:
client = self._create()
self.max_microversion = client.versions.get_current().version
return self.max_microversion
def is_version_supported(self, version):
api_ver = api_versions.get_api_version(version)
max_api_ver = api_versions.get_api_version(
self.get_max_microversion())
return max_api_ver >= api_ver
def is_not_found(self, ex):
return isinstance(ex, (exceptions.NotFound,
q_exceptions.NotFound))
def is_over_limit(self, ex):
return isinstance(ex, exceptions.OverLimit)
def is_bad_request(self, ex):
return isinstance(ex, exceptions.BadRequest)
def is_conflict(self, ex):
return isinstance(ex, exceptions.Conflict)
def is_unprocessable_entity(self, ex):
http_status = (getattr(ex, 'http_status', None) or
getattr(ex, 'code', None))
return (isinstance(ex, exceptions.ClientException) and
http_status == 422)
@tenacity.retry(
stop=tenacity.stop_after_attempt(
max(cfg.CONF.client_retry_limit + 1, 0)),
retry=tenacity.retry_if_exception(
client_plugin.retry_if_connection_err),
reraise=True)
def get_server(self, server):
"""Return fresh server object.
Substitutes Nova's NotFound for Heat's EntityNotFound,
to be returned to user as HTTP error.
"""
try:
return self.client().servers.get(server)
except exceptions.NotFound:
raise exception.EntityNotFound(entity='Server', name=server)
def fetch_server(self, server_id):
"""Fetch fresh server object from Nova.
Log warnings and return None for non-critical API errors.
Use this method in various ``check_*_complete`` resource methods,
where intermittent errors can be tolerated.
"""
server = None
try:
server = self.client().servers.get(server_id)
except exceptions.OverLimit as exc:
LOG.warning("Received an OverLimit response when "
"fetching server (%(id)s) : %(exception)s",
{'id': server_id,
'exception': exc})
except exceptions.ClientException as exc:
if ((getattr(exc, 'http_status', getattr(exc, 'code', None)) in
(500, 503))):
LOG.warning("Received the following exception when "
"fetching server (%(id)s) : %(exception)s",
{'id': server_id,
'exception': exc})
else:
raise
return server
def fetch_server_attr(self, server_id, attr):
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
fetched_attr = getattr(server, attr, None)
return fetched_attr
def refresh_server(self, server):
"""Refresh server's attributes.
Also log warnings for non-critical API errors.
"""
try:
server.get()
except exceptions.OverLimit as exc:
LOG.warning("Server %(name)s (%(id)s) received an OverLimit "
"response during server.get(): %(exception)s",
{'name': server.name,
'id': server.id,
'exception': exc})
except exceptions.ClientException as exc:
if ((getattr(exc, 'http_status', getattr(exc, 'code', None)) in
(500, 503))):
LOG.warning('Server "%(name)s" (%(id)s) received the '
'following exception during server.get(): '
'%(exception)s',
{'name': server.name,
'id': server.id,
'exception': exc})
else:
raise
def get_ip(self, server, net_type, ip_version):
"""Return the server's IP of the given type and version."""
if net_type in server.addresses:
for ip in server.addresses[net_type]:
if ip['version'] == ip_version:
return ip['addr']
def get_status(self, server):
"""Return the server's status.
:param server: server object
:returns: status as a string
"""
# Some clouds append extra (STATUS) strings to the status, strip it
return server.status.split('(')[0]
def _check_active(self, server, res_name='Server'):
"""Check server status.
Accepts both server IDs and server objects.
Returns True if server is ACTIVE,
raises errors when server has an ERROR or unknown to Heat status,
returns False otherwise.
:param res_name: name of the resource to use in the exception message
"""
# not checking with is_uuid_like as most tests use strings e.g. '1234'
if isinstance(server, str):
server = self.fetch_server(server)
if server is None:
return False
else:
status = self.get_status(server)
else:
status = self.get_status(server)
if status != 'ACTIVE':
self.refresh_server(server)
status = self.get_status(server)
if status in self.deferred_server_statuses:
return False
elif status == 'ACTIVE':
return True
elif status == 'ERROR':
fault = getattr(server, 'fault', {})
raise exception.ResourceInError(
resource_status=status,
status_reason=_("Message: %(message)s, Code: %(code)s") % {
'message': fault.get('message', _('Unknown')),
'code': fault.get('code', _('Unknown'))
})
else:
raise exception.ResourceUnknownStatus(
resource_status=server.status,
result=_('%s is not active') % res_name)
def find_flavor_by_name_or_id(self, flavor):
"""Find the specified flavor by name or id.
:param flavor: the name of the flavor to find
:returns: the id of :flavor:
"""
return self._find_flavor_id(self.context.tenant_id,
flavor)
@os_client.MEMOIZE_FINDER
def _find_flavor_id(self, tenant_id, flavor):
# tenant id in the signature is used for the memoization key,
# that would differentiate similar resource names across tenants.
return self.get_flavor(flavor).id
def get_flavor(self, flavor_identifier):
"""Get the flavor object for the specified flavor name or id.
:param flavor_identifier: the name or id of the flavor to find
:returns: a flavor object with name or id :flavor:
"""
try:
flavor = self.client().flavors.get(flavor_identifier)
except exceptions.NotFound:
flavor = self.client().flavors.find(name=flavor_identifier)
return flavor
def get_host(self, hypervisor_hostname):
"""Gets list of matching hypervisors by specified name.
:param hypervisor_hostname: the name of host to find
:returns: list of matching hypervisor hosts
:raises nova client exceptions.NotFound:
"""
return self.client().hypervisors.search(hypervisor_hostname)
def get_keypair(self, key_name):
"""Get the public key specified by :key_name:
:param key_name: the name of the key to look for
:returns: the keypair (name, public_key) for :key_name:
:raises exception.EntityNotFound:
"""
try:
return self.client().keypairs.get(key_name)
except exceptions.NotFound:
raise exception.EntityNotFound(entity='Key', name=key_name)
def build_userdata(self, metadata, userdata=None, instance_user=None,
user_data_format='HEAT_CFNTOOLS'):
"""Build multipart data blob for CloudInit and Ignition.
Data blob includes user-supplied Metadata, user data, and the required
Heat in-instance configuration.
:param resource: the resource implementation
:type resource: heat.engine.Resource
:param userdata: user data string
:type userdata: str or None
:param instance_user: the user to create on the server
:type instance_user: string
:param user_data_format: Format of user data to return
:type user_data_format: string
:returns: multipart mime as a string
"""
if user_data_format == 'RAW':
return userdata
is_cfntools = user_data_format == 'HEAT_CFNTOOLS'
is_software_config = user_data_format == 'SOFTWARE_CONFIG'
if (is_software_config and
NovaClientPlugin.is_ignition_format(userdata)):
return NovaClientPlugin.build_ignition_data(metadata, userdata)
def make_subpart(content, filename, subtype=None):
if subtype is None:
subtype = os.path.splitext(filename)[0]
if content is None:
content = ''
try:
content.encode('us-ascii')
charset = 'us-ascii'
except UnicodeEncodeError:
charset = 'utf-8'
msg = (text.MIMEText(content, _subtype=subtype, _charset=charset)
if subtype else text.MIMEText(content, _charset=charset))
msg.add_header('Content-Disposition', 'attachment',
filename=filename)
return msg
def read_cloudinit_file(fn):
return pkgutil.get_data(
'heat', 'cloudinit/%s' % fn).decode('utf-8')
if instance_user:
config_custom_user = 'user: %s' % instance_user
# FIXME(shadower): compatibility workaround for cloud-init 0.6.3.
# We can drop this once we stop supporting 0.6.3 (which ships
# with Ubuntu 12.04 LTS).
#
# See bug https://bugs.launchpad.net/heat/+bug/1257410
boothook_custom_user = r"""useradd -m %s
echo -e '%s\tALL=(ALL)\tNOPASSWD: ALL' >> /etc/sudoers
""" % (instance_user, instance_user)
else:
config_custom_user = ''
boothook_custom_user = ''
cloudinit_config = string.Template(
read_cloudinit_file('config')).safe_substitute(
add_custom_user=config_custom_user)
cloudinit_boothook = string.Template(
read_cloudinit_file('boothook.sh')).safe_substitute(
add_custom_user=boothook_custom_user)
attachments = [(cloudinit_config, 'cloud-config'),
(cloudinit_boothook, 'boothook.sh', 'cloud-boothook'),
(read_cloudinit_file('part_handler.py'),
'part-handler.py')]
if is_cfntools:
attachments.append((userdata, 'cfn-userdata', 'x-cfninitdata'))
elif is_software_config:
# attempt to parse userdata as a multipart message, and if it
# is, add each part as an attachment
userdata_parts = None
try:
userdata_parts = email.message_from_string(userdata)
except Exception:
pass
if userdata_parts and userdata_parts.is_multipart():
for part in userdata_parts.get_payload():
attachments.append((part.get_payload(),
part.get_filename(),
part.get_content_subtype()))
else:
attachments.append((userdata, ''))
if is_cfntools:
attachments.append((read_cloudinit_file('loguserdata.py'),
'loguserdata.py', 'x-shellscript'))
if metadata:
attachments.append((jsonutils.dumps(metadata),
'cfn-init-data', 'x-cfninitdata'))
if is_cfntools:
heat_client_plugin = self.context.clients.client_plugin('heat')
cfn_md_url = heat_client_plugin.get_cfn_metadata_server_url()
attachments.append((cfn_md_url,
'cfn-metadata-server', 'x-cfninitdata'))
# Create a boto config which the cfntools on the host use to know
# where the cfn API is to be accessed
cfn_url = urlparse.urlparse(cfn_md_url)
is_secure = cfg.CONF.instance_connection_is_secure
vcerts = cfg.CONF.instance_connection_https_validate_certificates
boto_cfg = "\n".join(["[Boto]",
"debug = 0",
"is_secure = %s" % is_secure,
"https_validate_certificates = %s" % vcerts,
"cfn_region_name = heat",
"cfn_region_endpoint = %s" %
cfn_url.hostname])
attachments.append((boto_cfg,
'cfn-boto-cfg', 'x-cfninitdata'))
subparts = [make_subpart(*args) for args in attachments]
mime_blob = multipart.MIMEMultipart(_subparts=subparts)
return mime_blob.as_string()
@staticmethod
def is_ignition_format(userdata):
try:
payload = jsonutils.loads(userdata)
ig = payload.get("ignition")
return True if ig and ig.get("version") else False
except Exception:
return False
@staticmethod
def build_ignition_data(metadata, userdata):
if not metadata:
return userdata
payload = jsonutils.loads(userdata)
encoded_metadata = urlparse.quote(jsonutils.dumps(metadata))
path_list = ["/var/lib/heat-cfntools/cfn-init-data",
"/var/lib/cloud/data/cfn-init-data"]
ignition_format_metadata = {
"filesystem": "root",
"group": {"name": "root"},
"path": "",
"user": {"name": "root"},
"contents": {
"source": "data:," + encoded_metadata,
"verification": {}},
"mode": 0o640
}
for path in path_list:
storage = payload.setdefault('storage', {})
try:
files = storage.setdefault('files', [])
except AttributeError:
raise ValueError('Ignition "storage" section must be a map')
else:
try:
data = ignition_format_metadata.copy()
data["path"] = path
files.append(data)
except AttributeError:
raise ValueError('Ignition "files" section must be a list')
return jsonutils.dumps(payload)
def check_delete_server_complete(self, server_id):
"""Wait for server to disappear from Nova."""
try:
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
except Exception as exc:
self.ignore_not_found(exc)
return True
if not server:
return False
task_state_in_nova = getattr(server, 'OS-EXT-STS:task_state', None)
# the status of server won't change until the delete task has done
if task_state_in_nova == 'deleting':
return False
status = self.get_status(server)
if status == 'DELETED':
return True
if status == 'SOFT_DELETED':
self.client().servers.force_delete(server_id)
elif status == 'ERROR':
fault = getattr(server, 'fault', {})
message = fault.get('message', 'Unknown')
code = fault.get('code')
errmsg = _("Server %(name)s delete failed: (%(code)s) "
"%(message)s") % dict(name=server.name,
code=code,
message=message)
raise exception.ResourceInError(resource_status=status,
status_reason=errmsg)
return False
def rename(self, server, name):
"""Update the name for a server."""
server.update(name)
def resize(self, server_id, flavor_id):
"""Resize the server."""
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if server:
server.resize(flavor_id)
return True
else:
return False
def check_resize(self, server_id, flavor):
"""Verify that a resizing server is properly resized.
If that's the case, confirm the resize, if not raise an error.
"""
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
# resize operation is asynchronous so the server resize may not start
# when checking server status (the server may stay ACTIVE instead
# of RESIZE).
if not server or server.status in ('RESIZE', 'ACTIVE'):
return False
if server.status == 'VERIFY_RESIZE':
return True
else:
raise exception.Error(
_("Resizing to '%(flavor)s' failed, status '%(status)s'") %
dict(flavor=flavor, status=server.status))
def verify_resize(self, server_id):
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if not server:
return False
status = self.get_status(server)
if status == 'VERIFY_RESIZE':
server.confirm_resize()
return True
else:
msg = _("Could not confirm resize of server %s") % server_id
raise exception.ResourceUnknownStatus(
result=msg, resource_status=status)
def check_verify_resize(self, server_id):
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if not server:
return False
status = self.get_status(server)
if status == 'ACTIVE':
return True
if status == 'VERIFY_RESIZE':
return False
task_state_in_nova = getattr(server, 'OS-EXT-STS:task_state', None)
# Wait till move out from any resize steps (including resize_finish).
if task_state_in_nova is not None and 'resize' in task_state_in_nova:
return False
else:
msg = _("Confirm resize for server %s failed") % server_id
raise exception.ResourceUnknownStatus(
result=msg, resource_status=status)
def rebuild(self, server_id, image_id, password=None,
preserve_ephemeral=False, meta=None, files=None):
"""Rebuild the server and call check_rebuild to verify."""
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if server:
server.rebuild(image_id, password=password,
preserve_ephemeral=preserve_ephemeral,
meta=meta, files=files)
return True
else:
return False
def check_rebuild(self, server_id):
"""Verify that a rebuilding server is rebuilt.
Raise error if it ends up in an ERROR state.
"""
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if server is None or server.status == 'REBUILD':
return False
if server.status == 'ERROR':
raise exception.Error(
_("Rebuilding server failed, status '%s'") % server.status)
else:
return True
def meta_serialize(self, metadata):
"""Serialize non-string metadata values before sending them to Nova."""
if not isinstance(metadata, collections.abc.Mapping):
raise exception.StackValidationFailed(message=_(
"nova server metadata needs to be a Map."))
return dict((key, (value if isinstance(value,
str)
else jsonutils.dumps(value))
) for (key, value) in metadata.items())
def meta_update(self, server, metadata):
"""Delete/Add the metadata in nova as needed."""
metadata = self.meta_serialize(metadata)
current_md = server.metadata
to_del = sorted(set(current_md) - set(metadata))
client = self.client()
if len(to_del) > 0:
client.servers.delete_meta(server, to_del)
client.servers.set_meta(server, metadata)
def server_to_ipaddress(self, server):
"""Return the server's IP address, fetching it from Nova."""
try:
server = self.client().servers.get(server)
except exceptions.NotFound as ex:
LOG.warning('Instance (%(server)s) not found: %(ex)s',
{'server': server, 'ex': ex})
else:
for n in sorted(server.networks, reverse=True):
if len(server.networks[n]) > 0:
return server.networks[n][0]
@tenacity.retry(
stop=tenacity.stop_after_attempt(
max(cfg.CONF.client_retry_limit + 1, 0)),
retry=tenacity.retry_if_exception(
client_plugin.retry_if_connection_err),
reraise=True)
def absolute_limits(self):
"""Return the absolute limits as a dictionary."""
limits = self.client().limits.get()
return dict([(limit.name, limit.value)
for limit in list(limits.absolute)])
def get_console_urls(self, server):
"""Return dict-like structure of server's console urls.
The actual console url is lazily resolved on access.
"""
nc = self.client
class ConsoleUrls(collections.abc.Mapping):
def __init__(self, server):
self.console_method = server.get_console_url
self.support_console_types = ['novnc', 'xvpvnc',
'spice-html5', 'rdp-html5',
'serial', 'webmks']
def __getitem__(self, key):
try:
if key not in self.support_console_types:
raise exceptions.UnsupportedConsoleType(key)
if key == 'webmks':
data = nc().servers.get_console_url(
server, key)
else:
data = self.console_method(key)
console_data = data.get(
'remote_console', data.get('console'))
url = console_data['url']
except exceptions.UnsupportedConsoleType as ex:
url = ex.message
except Exception as e:
url = _('Cannot get console url: %s') % str(e)
return url
def __len__(self):
return len(self.support_console_types)
def __iter__(self):
return (key for key in self.support_console_types)
return ConsoleUrls(server)
def attach_volume(self, server_id, volume_id, device):
try:
va = self.client().volumes.create_server_volume(
server_id=server_id,
volume_id=volume_id,
device=device)
except Exception as ex:
if self.is_conflict(ex):
return False
elif self.is_client_exception(ex):
raise exception.Error(_(
"Failed to attach volume %(vol)s to server %(srv)s "
"- %(err)s") % {'vol': volume_id,
'srv': server_id,
'err': ex})
else:
raise
return va.id
def detach_volume(self, server_id, attach_id):
# detach the volume using volume_attachment
try:
self.client().volumes.delete_server_volume(server_id, attach_id)
except Exception as ex:
if self.is_conflict(ex):
return False
elif not (self.is_not_found(ex)
or self.is_bad_request(ex)):
raise exception.Error(
_("Could not detach attachment %(att)s "
"from server %(srv)s.") % {'srv': server_id,
'att': attach_id})
return True
def check_detach_volume_complete(self, server_id, attach_id):
"""Check that nova server lost attachment.
This check is needed for immediate reattachment when updating:
there might be some time between cinder marking volume as 'available'
and nova removing attachment from its own objects, so we
check that nova already knows that the volume is detached.
"""
try:
self.client().volumes.get_server_volume(server_id, attach_id)
except Exception as ex:
self.ignore_not_found(ex)
LOG.info("Volume %(vol)s is detached from server %(srv)s",
{'vol': attach_id, 'srv': server_id})
return True
else:
LOG.debug("Server %(srv)s still has attachment %(att)s.",
{'att': attach_id, 'srv': server_id})
return False
def associate_floatingip(self, server_id, floatingip_id):
iface_list = self.fetch_server(server_id).interface_list()
if len(iface_list) == 0:
raise client_exception.InterfaceNotFound(id=server_id)
if len(iface_list) > 1:
LOG.warning("Multiple interfaces found for server %s, "
"using the first one.", server_id)
port_id = iface_list[0].port_id
fixed_ips = iface_list[0].fixed_ips
fixed_address = next(ip['ip_address'] for ip in fixed_ips
if netutils.is_valid_ipv4(ip['ip_address']))
request_body = {
'floatingip': {
'port_id': port_id,
'fixed_ip_address': fixed_address}}
self.clients.client('neutron').update_floatingip(floatingip_id,
request_body)
def dissociate_floatingip(self, floatingip_id):
request_body = {
'floatingip': {
'port_id': None,
'fixed_ip_address': None}}
self.clients.client('neutron').update_floatingip(floatingip_id,
request_body)
def associate_floatingip_address(self, server_id, fip_address):
fips = self.clients.client(
'neutron').list_floatingips(
floating_ip_address=fip_address)['floatingips']
if len(fips) == 0:
args = {'ip_address': fip_address}
raise client_exception.EntityMatchNotFound(entity='floatingip',
args=args)
self.associate_floatingip(server_id, fips[0]['id'])
def dissociate_floatingip_address(self, fip_address):
fips = self.clients.client(
'neutron').list_floatingips(
floating_ip_address=fip_address)['floatingips']
if len(fips) == 0:
args = {'ip_address': fip_address}
raise client_exception.EntityMatchNotFound(entity='floatingip',
args=args)
self.dissociate_floatingip(fips[0]['id'])
def interface_detach(self, server_id, port_id):
with self.ignore_not_found:
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if server:
server.interface_detach(port_id)
return True
def interface_attach(self, server_id, port_id=None, net_id=None, fip=None,
security_groups=None):
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if server:
attachment = server.interface_attach(port_id, net_id, fip)
if not port_id and security_groups:
props = {'security_groups': security_groups}
self.clients.client('neutron').update_port(
attachment.port_id, {'port': props})
return True
else:
return False
@tenacity.retry(
stop=tenacity.stop_after_attempt(
cfg.CONF.max_interface_check_attempts),
wait=tenacity.wait_exponential(multiplier=0.5, max=12.0),
retry=tenacity.retry_if_result(client_plugin.retry_if_result_is_false))
def check_interface_detach(self, server_id, port_id):
with self.ignore_not_found:
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if server:
interfaces = server.interface_list()
for iface in interfaces:
if iface.port_id == port_id:
return False
return True
@tenacity.retry(
stop=tenacity.stop_after_attempt(
cfg.CONF.max_interface_check_attempts),
wait=tenacity.wait_fixed(0.5),
retry=tenacity.retry_if_result(client_plugin.retry_if_result_is_false))
def check_interface_attach(self, server_id, port_id):
if not port_id:
return True
server = self.fetch_server(server_id)
if server:
interfaces = server.interface_list()
for iface in interfaces:
if iface.port_id == port_id:
return True
return False
class NovaBaseConstraint(constraints.BaseCustomConstraint):
resource_client_name = CLIENT_NAME
class ServerConstraint(NovaBaseConstraint):
resource_getter_name = 'get_server'
class KeypairConstraint(NovaBaseConstraint):
resource_getter_name = 'get_keypair'
def validate_with_client(self, client, key_name):
if not key_name:
# Don't validate empty key, which can happen when you
# use a KeyPair resource
return True
super(KeypairConstraint, self).validate_with_client(client, key_name)
class FlavorConstraint(NovaBaseConstraint):
expected_exceptions = (exceptions.NotFound,)
resource_getter_name = 'find_flavor_by_name_or_id'
class HostConstraint(NovaBaseConstraint):
expected_exceptions = (exceptions.NotFound,)
resource_getter_name = 'get_host'