OpenStack Identity (Keystone)
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# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
import base64
import datetime
import hashlib
import os
import uuid
import msgpack
from oslo_utils import timeutils
from six.moves import urllib
from keystone.common import fernet_utils
from keystone.common import utils
import keystone.conf
from keystone import exception
from keystone.federation import constants as federation_constants
from keystone.tests import unit
from keystone.tests.unit import ksfixtures
from keystone.tests.unit.ksfixtures import database
from keystone.token import provider
from keystone.token.providers import fernet
from keystone.token.providers.fernet import token_formatters
CONF = keystone.conf.CONF
class TestFernetTokenProvider(unit.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
super(TestFernetTokenProvider, self).setUp()
self.useFixture(ksfixtures.KeyRepository(self.config_fixture))
self.provider = fernet.Provider()
def test_supports_bind_authentication_returns_false(self):
self.assertFalse(self.provider._supports_bind_authentication)
def test_needs_persistence_returns_false(self):
self.assertFalse(self.provider.needs_persistence())
def test_invalid_v3_token_raises_token_not_found(self):
# NOTE(lbragstad): Here we use the validate_non_persistent_token()
# methods because the validate_v3_token() method is strictly for
# validating UUID formatted tokens. It is written to assume cached
# tokens from a backend, where validate_non_persistent_token() is not.
token_id = uuid.uuid4().hex
e = self.assertRaises(
exception.TokenNotFound,
self.provider.validate_non_persistent_token,
token_id)
self.assertIn(token_id, u'%s' % e)
def test_invalid_v2_token_raises_token_not_found(self):
token_id = uuid.uuid4().hex
e = self.assertRaises(
exception.TokenNotFound,
self.provider.validate_non_persistent_token,
token_id)
self.assertIn(token_id, u'%s' % e)
class TestValidate(unit.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
super(TestValidate, self).setUp()
self.useFixture(ksfixtures.KeyRepository(self.config_fixture))
self.useFixture(database.Database())
self.load_backends()
def config_overrides(self):
super(TestValidate, self).config_overrides()
self.config_fixture.config(group='token', provider='fernet')
def test_validate_v3_token_simple(self):
# Check the fields in the token result when use validate_v3_token
# with a simple token.
domain_ref = unit.new_domain_ref()
domain_ref = self.resource_api.create_domain(domain_ref['id'],
domain_ref)
user_ref = unit.new_user_ref(domain_ref['id'])
user_ref = self.identity_api.create_user(user_ref)
method_names = ['password']
token_id, token_data_ = self.token_provider_api.issue_v3_token(
user_ref['id'], method_names)
token_data = self.token_provider_api.validate_v3_token(token_id)
token = token_data['token']
self.assertIsInstance(token['audit_ids'], list)
self.assertIsInstance(token['expires_at'], str)
self.assertIsInstance(token['issued_at'], str)
self.assertEqual(method_names, token['methods'])
exp_user_info = {
'id': user_ref['id'],
'name': user_ref['name'],
'domain': {
'id': domain_ref['id'],
'name': domain_ref['name'],
},
}
self.assertEqual(exp_user_info, token['user'])
def test_validate_v3_token_federated_info(self):
# Check the user fields in the token result when use validate_v3_token
# when the token has federated info.
domain_ref = unit.new_domain_ref()
domain_ref = self.resource_api.create_domain(domain_ref['id'],
domain_ref)
user_ref = unit.new_user_ref(domain_ref['id'])
user_ref = self.identity_api.create_user(user_ref)
method_names = ['mapped']
group_ids = [uuid.uuid4().hex, ]
identity_provider = uuid.uuid4().hex
protocol = uuid.uuid4().hex
auth_context = {
'user_id': user_ref['id'],
'user_name': user_ref['name'],
'group_ids': group_ids,
federation_constants.IDENTITY_PROVIDER: identity_provider,
federation_constants.PROTOCOL: protocol,
}
token_id, token_data_ = self.token_provider_api.issue_v3_token(
user_ref['id'], method_names, auth_context=auth_context)
token_data = self.token_provider_api.validate_v3_token(token_id)
token = token_data['token']
exp_user_info = {
'id': user_ref['id'],
'name': user_ref['name'],
'domain': {'id': CONF.federation.federated_domain_name,
'name': CONF.federation.federated_domain_name, },
federation_constants.FEDERATION: {
'groups': [{'id': group_id} for group_id in group_ids],
'identity_provider': {'id': identity_provider, },
'protocol': {'id': protocol, },
},
}
self.assertDictEqual(exp_user_info, token['user'])
def test_validate_v3_token_trust(self):
# Check the trust fields in the token result when use validate_v3_token
# when the token has trust info.
domain_ref = unit.new_domain_ref()
domain_ref = self.resource_api.create_domain(domain_ref['id'],
domain_ref)
user_ref = unit.new_user_ref(domain_ref['id'])
user_ref = self.identity_api.create_user(user_ref)
trustor_user_ref = unit.new_user_ref(domain_ref['id'])
trustor_user_ref = self.identity_api.create_user(trustor_user_ref)
project_ref = unit.new_project_ref(domain_id=domain_ref['id'])
project_ref = self.resource_api.create_project(project_ref['id'],
project_ref)
role_ref = unit.new_role_ref()
role_ref = self.role_api.create_role(role_ref['id'], role_ref)
self.assignment_api.create_grant(
role_ref['id'], user_id=user_ref['id'],
project_id=project_ref['id'])
self.assignment_api.create_grant(
role_ref['id'], user_id=trustor_user_ref['id'],
project_id=project_ref['id'])
trustor_user_id = trustor_user_ref['id']
trustee_user_id = user_ref['id']
trust_ref = unit.new_trust_ref(
trustor_user_id, trustee_user_id, project_id=project_ref['id'],
role_ids=[role_ref['id'], ])
trust_ref = self.trust_api.create_trust(trust_ref['id'], trust_ref,
trust_ref['roles'])
method_names = ['password']
token_id, token_data_ = self.token_provider_api.issue_v3_token(
user_ref['id'], method_names, project_id=project_ref['id'],
trust=trust_ref)
token_data = self.token_provider_api.validate_v3_token(token_id)
token = token_data['token']
exp_trust_info = {
'id': trust_ref['id'],
'impersonation': False,
'trustee_user': {'id': user_ref['id'], },
'trustor_user': {'id': trustor_user_ref['id'], },
}
self.assertEqual(exp_trust_info, token['OS-TRUST:trust'])
def test_validate_v3_token_validation_error_exc(self):
# When the token format isn't recognized, TokenNotFound is raised.
# A uuid string isn't a valid Fernet token.
token_id = uuid.uuid4().hex
self.assertRaises(exception.TokenNotFound,
self.token_provider_api.validate_v3_token, token_id)
class TestTokenFormatter(unit.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
super(TestTokenFormatter, self).setUp()
self.useFixture(ksfixtures.KeyRepository(self.config_fixture))
def test_restore_padding(self):
# 'a' will result in '==' padding, 'aa' will result in '=' padding, and
# 'aaa' will result in no padding.
binary_to_test = [b'a', b'aa', b'aaa']
for binary in binary_to_test:
# base64.urlsafe_b64encode takes six.binary_type and returns
# six.binary_type.
encoded_string = base64.urlsafe_b64encode(binary)
encoded_string = encoded_string.decode('utf-8')
# encoded_string is now six.text_type.
encoded_str_without_padding = encoded_string.rstrip('=')
self.assertFalse(encoded_str_without_padding.endswith('='))
encoded_str_with_padding_restored = (
token_formatters.TokenFormatter.restore_padding(
encoded_str_without_padding)
)
self.assertEqual(encoded_string, encoded_str_with_padding_restored)
def test_legacy_padding_validation(self):
first_value = uuid.uuid4().hex
second_value = uuid.uuid4().hex
payload = (first_value, second_value)
msgpack_payload = msgpack.packb(payload)
# msgpack_payload is six.binary_type.
tf = token_formatters.TokenFormatter()
# NOTE(lbragstad): This method preserves the way that keystone used to
# percent encode the tokens, prior to bug #1491926.
def legacy_pack(payload):
# payload is six.binary_type.
encrypted_payload = tf.crypto.encrypt(payload)
# encrypted_payload is six.binary_type.
# the encrypted_payload is returned with padding appended
self.assertTrue(encrypted_payload.endswith(b'='))
# using urllib.parse.quote will percent encode the padding, like
# keystone did in Kilo.
percent_encoded_payload = urllib.parse.quote(encrypted_payload)
# percent_encoded_payload is six.text_type.
# ensure that the padding was actually percent encoded
self.assertTrue(percent_encoded_payload.endswith('%3D'))
return percent_encoded_payload
token_with_legacy_padding = legacy_pack(msgpack_payload)
# token_with_legacy_padding is six.text_type.
# demonstrate the we can validate a payload that has been percent
# encoded with the Fernet logic that existed in Kilo
serialized_payload = tf.unpack(token_with_legacy_padding)
# serialized_payload is six.binary_type.
returned_payload = msgpack.unpackb(serialized_payload)
# returned_payload contains six.binary_type.
self.assertEqual(first_value, returned_payload[0].decode('utf-8'))
self.assertEqual(second_value, returned_payload[1].decode('utf-8'))
class TestPayloads(unit.TestCase):
def assertTimestampsEqual(self, expected, actual):
# The timestamp that we get back when parsing the payload may not
# exactly match the timestamp that was put in the payload due to
# conversion to and from a float.
exp_time = timeutils.parse_isotime(expected)
actual_time = timeutils.parse_isotime(actual)
# the granularity of timestamp string is microseconds and it's only the
# last digit in the representation that's different, so use a delta
# just above nanoseconds.
return self.assertCloseEnoughForGovernmentWork(exp_time, actual_time,
delta=1e-05)
def test_uuid_hex_to_byte_conversions(self):
payload_cls = token_formatters.BasePayload
expected_hex_uuid = uuid.uuid4().hex
uuid_obj = uuid.UUID(expected_hex_uuid)
expected_uuid_in_bytes = uuid_obj.bytes
actual_uuid_in_bytes = payload_cls.convert_uuid_hex_to_bytes(
expected_hex_uuid)
self.assertEqual(expected_uuid_in_bytes, actual_uuid_in_bytes)
actual_hex_uuid = payload_cls.convert_uuid_bytes_to_hex(
expected_uuid_in_bytes)
self.assertEqual(expected_hex_uuid, actual_hex_uuid)
def test_time_string_to_float_conversions(self):
payload_cls = token_formatters.BasePayload
original_time_str = utils.isotime(subsecond=True)
time_obj = timeutils.parse_isotime(original_time_str)
expected_time_float = (
(timeutils.normalize_time(time_obj) -
datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(0)).total_seconds())
# NOTE(lbragstad): The token expiration time for Fernet tokens is
# passed in the payload of the token. This is different from the token
# creation time, which is handled by Fernet and doesn't support
# subsecond precision because it is a timestamp integer.
self.assertIsInstance(expected_time_float, float)
actual_time_float = payload_cls._convert_time_string_to_float(
original_time_str)
self.assertIsInstance(actual_time_float, float)
self.assertEqual(expected_time_float, actual_time_float)
# Generate expected_time_str using the same time float. Using
# original_time_str from utils.isotime will occasionally fail due to
# floating point rounding differences.
time_object = datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(actual_time_float)
expected_time_str = utils.isotime(time_object, subsecond=True)
actual_time_str = payload_cls._convert_float_to_time_string(
actual_time_float)
self.assertEqual(expected_time_str, actual_time_str)
def _test_payload(self, payload_class, exp_user_id=None, exp_methods=None,
exp_project_id=None, exp_domain_id=None,
exp_trust_id=None, exp_federated_info=None,
exp_access_token_id=None):
exp_user_id = exp_user_id or uuid.uuid4().hex
exp_methods = exp_methods or ['password']
exp_expires_at = utils.isotime(timeutils.utcnow(), subsecond=True)
exp_audit_ids = [provider.random_urlsafe_str()]
payload = payload_class.assemble(
exp_user_id, exp_methods, exp_project_id, exp_domain_id,
exp_expires_at, exp_audit_ids, exp_trust_id, exp_federated_info,
exp_access_token_id)
(user_id, methods, project_id,
domain_id, expires_at, audit_ids,
trust_id, federated_info,
access_token_id) = payload_class.disassemble(payload)
self.assertEqual(exp_user_id, user_id)
self.assertEqual(exp_methods, methods)
self.assertTimestampsEqual(exp_expires_at, expires_at)
self.assertEqual(exp_audit_ids, audit_ids)
self.assertEqual(exp_project_id, project_id)
self.assertEqual(exp_domain_id, domain_id)
self.assertEqual(exp_trust_id, trust_id)
self.assertEqual(exp_access_token_id, access_token_id)
if exp_federated_info:
self.assertDictEqual(exp_federated_info, federated_info)
else:
self.assertIsNone(federated_info)
def test_unscoped_payload(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.UnscopedPayload)
def test_project_scoped_payload(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.ProjectScopedPayload,
exp_project_id=uuid.uuid4().hex)
def test_domain_scoped_payload(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.DomainScopedPayload,
exp_domain_id=uuid.uuid4().hex)
def test_domain_scoped_payload_with_default_domain(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.DomainScopedPayload,
exp_domain_id=CONF.identity.default_domain_id)
def test_trust_scoped_payload(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.TrustScopedPayload,
exp_project_id=uuid.uuid4().hex,
exp_trust_id=uuid.uuid4().hex)
def test_unscoped_payload_with_non_uuid_user_id(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.UnscopedPayload,
exp_user_id='someNonUuidUserId')
def test_unscoped_payload_with_16_char_non_uuid_user_id(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.UnscopedPayload,
exp_user_id='0123456789abcdef')
def test_project_scoped_payload_with_non_uuid_ids(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.ProjectScopedPayload,
exp_user_id='someNonUuidUserId',
exp_project_id='someNonUuidProjectId')
def test_project_scoped_payload_with_16_char_non_uuid_ids(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.ProjectScopedPayload,
exp_user_id='0123456789abcdef',
exp_project_id='0123456789abcdef')
def test_domain_scoped_payload_with_non_uuid_user_id(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.DomainScopedPayload,
exp_user_id='nonUuidUserId',
exp_domain_id=uuid.uuid4().hex)
def test_domain_scoped_payload_with_16_char_non_uuid_user_id(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.DomainScopedPayload,
exp_user_id='0123456789abcdef',
exp_domain_id=uuid.uuid4().hex)
def test_trust_scoped_payload_with_non_uuid_ids(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.TrustScopedPayload,
exp_user_id='someNonUuidUserId',
exp_project_id='someNonUuidProjectId',
exp_trust_id=uuid.uuid4().hex)
def test_trust_scoped_payload_with_16_char_non_uuid_ids(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.TrustScopedPayload,
exp_user_id='0123456789abcdef',
exp_project_id='0123456789abcdef',
exp_trust_id=uuid.uuid4().hex)
def _test_federated_payload_with_ids(self, exp_user_id, exp_group_id):
exp_federated_info = {'group_ids': [{'id': exp_group_id}],
'idp_id': uuid.uuid4().hex,
'protocol_id': uuid.uuid4().hex}
self._test_payload(token_formatters.FederatedUnscopedPayload,
exp_user_id=exp_user_id,
exp_federated_info=exp_federated_info)
def test_federated_payload_with_non_uuid_ids(self):
self._test_federated_payload_with_ids('someNonUuidUserId',
'someNonUuidGroupId')
def test_federated_payload_with_16_char_non_uuid_ids(self):
self._test_federated_payload_with_ids('0123456789abcdef',
'0123456789abcdef')
def test_federated_project_scoped_payload(self):
exp_federated_info = {'group_ids': [{'id': 'someNonUuidGroupId'}],
'idp_id': uuid.uuid4().hex,
'protocol_id': uuid.uuid4().hex}
self._test_payload(token_formatters.FederatedProjectScopedPayload,
exp_user_id='someNonUuidUserId',
exp_methods=['token'],
exp_project_id=uuid.uuid4().hex,
exp_federated_info=exp_federated_info)
def test_federated_domain_scoped_payload(self):
exp_federated_info = {'group_ids': [{'id': 'someNonUuidGroupId'}],
'idp_id': uuid.uuid4().hex,
'protocol_id': uuid.uuid4().hex}
self._test_payload(token_formatters.FederatedDomainScopedPayload,
exp_user_id='someNonUuidUserId',
exp_methods=['token'],
exp_domain_id=uuid.uuid4().hex,
exp_federated_info=exp_federated_info)
def test_oauth_scoped_payload(self):
self._test_payload(token_formatters.OauthScopedPayload,
exp_project_id=uuid.uuid4().hex,
exp_access_token_id=uuid.uuid4().hex)
class TestFernetKeyRotation(unit.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
super(TestFernetKeyRotation, self).setUp()
# A collection of all previously-seen signatures of the key
# repository's contents.
self.key_repo_signatures = set()
@property
def keys(self):
"""Key files converted to numbers."""
return sorted(
int(x) for x in os.listdir(CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository))
@property
def key_repository_size(self):
"""The number of keys in the key repository."""
return len(self.keys)
@property
def key_repository_signature(self):
"""Create a "thumbprint" of the current key repository.
Because key files are renamed, this produces a hash of the contents of
the key files, ignoring their filenames.
The resulting signature can be used, for example, to ensure that you
have a unique set of keys after you perform a key rotation (taking a
static set of keys, and simply shuffling them, would fail such a test).
"""
# Load the keys into a list, keys is list of six.text_type.
key_utils = fernet_utils.FernetUtils(
CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository,
CONF.fernet_tokens.max_active_keys
)
keys = key_utils.load_keys()
# Sort the list of keys by the keys themselves (they were previously
# sorted by filename).
keys.sort()
# Create the thumbprint using all keys in the repository.
signature = hashlib.sha1()
for key in keys:
# Need to convert key to six.binary_type for update.
signature.update(key.encode('utf-8'))
return signature.hexdigest()
def assertRepositoryState(self, expected_size):
"""Validate the state of the key repository."""
self.assertEqual(expected_size, self.key_repository_size)
self.assertUniqueRepositoryState()
def assertUniqueRepositoryState(self):
"""Ensure that the current key repo state has not been seen before."""
# This is assigned to a variable because it takes some work to
# calculate.
signature = self.key_repository_signature
# Ensure the signature is not in the set of previously seen signatures.
self.assertNotIn(signature, self.key_repo_signatures)
# Add the signature to the set of repository signatures to validate
# that we don't see it again later.
self.key_repo_signatures.add(signature)
def test_rotation(self):
# Initializing a key repository results in this many keys. We don't
# support max_active_keys being set any lower.
min_active_keys = 2
# Simulate every rotation strategy up to "rotating once a week while
# maintaining a year's worth of keys."
for max_active_keys in range(min_active_keys, 52 + 1):
self.config_fixture.config(group='fernet_tokens',
max_active_keys=max_active_keys)
# Ensure that resetting the key repository always results in 2
# active keys.
self.useFixture(ksfixtures.KeyRepository(self.config_fixture))
# Validate the initial repository state.
self.assertRepositoryState(expected_size=min_active_keys)
# The repository should be initialized with a staged key (0) and a
# primary key (1). The next key is just auto-incremented.
exp_keys = [0, 1]
next_key_number = exp_keys[-1] + 1 # keep track of next key
self.assertEqual(exp_keys, self.keys)
# Rotate the keys just enough times to fully populate the key
# repository.
key_utils = fernet_utils.FernetUtils(
CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository,
CONF.fernet_tokens.max_active_keys
)
for rotation in range(max_active_keys - min_active_keys):
key_utils.rotate_keys()
self.assertRepositoryState(expected_size=rotation + 3)
exp_keys.append(next_key_number)
next_key_number += 1
self.assertEqual(exp_keys, self.keys)
# We should have a fully populated key repository now.
self.assertEqual(max_active_keys, self.key_repository_size)
# Rotate an additional number of times to ensure that we maintain
# the desired number of active keys.
key_utils = fernet_utils.FernetUtils(
CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository,
CONF.fernet_tokens.max_active_keys
)
for rotation in range(10):
key_utils.rotate_keys()
self.assertRepositoryState(expected_size=max_active_keys)
exp_keys.pop(1)
exp_keys.append(next_key_number)
next_key_number += 1
self.assertEqual(exp_keys, self.keys)
def test_non_numeric_files(self):
self.useFixture(ksfixtures.KeyRepository(self.config_fixture))
evil_file = os.path.join(CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository, '99.bak')
with open(evil_file, 'w'):
pass
key_utils = fernet_utils.FernetUtils(
CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository,
CONF.fernet_tokens.max_active_keys
)
key_utils.rotate_keys()
self.assertTrue(os.path.isfile(evil_file))
keys = 0
for x in os.listdir(CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository):
if x == '99.bak':
continue
keys += 1
self.assertEqual(3, keys)
class TestLoadKeys(unit.TestCase):
def test_non_numeric_files(self):
self.useFixture(ksfixtures.KeyRepository(self.config_fixture))
evil_file = os.path.join(CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository, '~1')
with open(evil_file, 'w'):
pass
key_utils = fernet_utils.FernetUtils(
CONF.fernet_tokens.key_repository,
CONF.fernet_tokens.max_active_keys
)
keys = key_utils.load_keys()
self.assertEqual(2, len(keys))
self.assertTrue(len(keys[0]))