OpenStack Compute (Nova)
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# Copyright (c) 2013 Intel, Inc.
# Copyright (c) 2013 OpenStack Foundation
# All Rights Reserved.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
import collections
from oslo_config import cfg
from oslo_log import log as logging
from oslo_serialization import jsonutils
from nova import exception
from nova import objects
from nova.objects import fields
from nova.pci import stats
from nova.pci import whitelist
LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)
class PciDevTracker(object):
"""Manage pci devices in a compute node.
This class fetches pci passthrough information from hypervisor
and tracks the usage of these devices.
It's called by compute node resource tracker to allocate and free
devices to/from instances, and to update the available pci passthrough
device information from the hypervisor periodically.
The `pci_devs` attribute of this class is the in-memory "master copy" of
all devices on each compute host, and all data changes that happen when
claiming/allocating/freeing devices HAVE TO be made against instances
contained in `pci_devs` list, because they are periodically flushed to the
DB when the save() method is called.
It is unsafe to fetch PciDevice objects elsewhere in the code for update
purposes as those changes will end up being overwritten when the `pci_devs`
are saved.
def __init__(self, context, node_id=None):
"""Create a pci device tracker.
If a node_id is passed in, it will fetch pci devices information
from database, otherwise, it will create an empty devices list
and the resource tracker will update the node_id information later.
super(PciDevTracker, self).__init__()
self.stale = {}
self.node_id = node_id
self.dev_filter = whitelist.Whitelist(CONF.pci.passthrough_whitelist)
self.stats = stats.PciDeviceStats(dev_filter=self.dev_filter)
self._context = context
if node_id:
self.pci_devs = objects.PciDeviceList.get_by_compute_node(
context, node_id)
self.pci_devs = objects.PciDeviceList(objects=[])
def _initial_instance_usage(self):
self.allocations = collections.defaultdict(list) = collections.defaultdict(list)
for dev in self.pci_devs:
uuid = dev.instance_uuid
if dev.status == fields.PciDeviceStatus.CLAIMED:[uuid].append(dev)
elif dev.status == fields.PciDeviceStatus.ALLOCATED:
elif dev.status == fields.PciDeviceStatus.AVAILABLE:
def save(self, context):
for dev in self.pci_devs:
if dev.obj_what_changed():
with dev.obj_alternate_context(context):
if dev.status == fields.PciDeviceStatus.DELETED:
def pci_stats(self):
return self.stats
def update_devices_from_hypervisor_resources(self, devices_json):
"""Sync the pci device tracker with hypervisor information.
To support pci device hot plug, we sync with the hypervisor
periodically, fetching all devices information from hypervisor,
update the tracker and sync the DB information.
Devices should not be hot-plugged when assigned to a guest,
but possibly the hypervisor has no such guarantee. The best
we can do is to give a warning if a device is changed
or removed while assigned.
:param devices_json: The JSON-ified string of device information
that is returned from the virt driver's
get_available_resource() call in the
pci_passthrough_devices key.
devices = []
for dev in jsonutils.loads(devices_json):
if self.dev_filter.device_assignable(dev):
def _build_device_tree(all_devs):
"""Build a tree of devices that represents parent-child relationships.
We need to have the relationships set up so that we can easily make
all the necessary changes to parent/child devices without having to
figure it out at each call site.
This method just adds references to relevant instances already found
in `pci_devs` to `child_devices` and `parent_device` fields of each
Currently relationships are considered for SR-IOV PFs/VFs only.
# Ensures that devices are ordered in ASC so VFs will come
# after their PFs.
all_devs.sort(key=lambda x: x.address)
parents = {}
for dev in all_devs:
if dev.status in (fields.PciDeviceStatus.REMOVED,
# NOTE(ndipanov): Removed devs are pruned from
# self.pci_devs on save() so we need to make sure we
# are not looking at removed ones as we may build up
# the tree sooner than they are pruned.
if dev.dev_type == fields.PciDeviceType.SRIOV_PF:
dev.child_devices = []
parents[dev.address] = dev
elif dev.dev_type == fields.PciDeviceType.SRIOV_VF:
dev.parent_device = parents.get(dev.parent_addr)
if dev.parent_device:
def _set_hvdevs(self, devices):
exist_addrs = set([dev.address for dev in self.pci_devs])
new_addrs = set([dev['address'] for dev in devices])
for existed in self.pci_devs:
if existed.address in exist_addrs - new_addrs:
# Remove previously tracked PCI devices that are either
# no longer reported by the hypervisor or have been removed
# from the pci whitelist.
except exception.PciDeviceInvalidStatus as e:
LOG.warning("Unable to remove device with %(status)s "
"ownership %(instance_uuid)s because of "
"%(pci_exception)s. "
"Check your [pci]passthrough_whitelist "
"configuration to make sure this allocated "
"device is whitelisted. If you have removed "
"the device from the whitelist intentionally "
"or the device is no longer available on the "
"host you will need to delete the server or "
"migrate it to another host to silence this "
{'status': existed.status,
'instance_uuid': existed.instance_uuid,
'pci_exception': e.format_message()})
# NOTE(sean-k-mooney): the device may not be tracked for
# two reasons: first the device could have been removed
# from the host or second the whitelist could have been
# updated. While force removing may seam reasonable, if
# the device is allocated to a vm, force removing the
# device entry from the resource tracker can prevent the vm
# from rebooting. If the PCI device was removed due to an
# update to the PCI whitelist which was later reverted,
# removing the entry from the database and adding it back
# later may lead to the scheduler incorrectly selecting
# this host and the ResourceTracker assigning the PCI
# device to a second vm. To prevent this bug we skip
# deleting the device from the db in this iteration and
# will try again on the next sync.
# Note(yjiang5): no need to update stats if an assigned
# device is hot removed.
# Update tracked devices.
new_value = next((dev for dev in devices if
dev['address'] == existed.address))
new_value['compute_node_id'] = self.node_id
if existed.status in (fields.PciDeviceStatus.CLAIMED,
# Pci properties may change while assigned because of
# hotplug or config changes. Although normally this should
# not happen.
# As the devices have been assigned to an instance,
# we defer the change till the instance is destroyed.
# We will not sync the new properties with database
# before that.
# TODO(yjiang5): Not sure if this is a right policy, but
# at least it avoids some confusion and, if needed,
# we can add more action like killing the instance
# by force in future.
self.stale[new_value['address']] = new_value
# Track newly discovered devices.
for dev in [dev for dev in devices if
dev['address'] in new_addrs - exist_addrs]:
dev['compute_node_id'] = self.node_id
dev_obj = objects.PciDevice.create(self._context, dev)
def _claim_instance(self, context, pci_requests, instance_numa_topology):
instance_cells = None
if instance_numa_topology:
instance_cells = instance_numa_topology.cells
devs = self.stats.consume_requests(pci_requests.requests,
if not devs:
return None
instance_uuid = pci_requests.instance_uuid
for dev in devs:
if instance_numa_topology and any(
dev.numa_node is None for dev in devs):
LOG.warning("Assigning a pci device without numa affinity to "
"instance %(instance)s which has numa topology",
{'instance': instance_uuid})
return devs
def _allocate_instance(self, instance, devs):
for dev in devs:
def allocate_instance(self, instance):
devs =['uuid'], [])
self._allocate_instance(instance, devs)
if devs:
self.allocations[instance['uuid']] += devs
def claim_instance(self, context, pci_requests, instance_numa_topology):
devs = []
if self.pci_devs and pci_requests.requests:
instance_uuid = pci_requests.instance_uuid
devs = self._claim_instance(context, pci_requests,
if devs:[instance_uuid] = devs
return devs
def free_device(self, dev, instance):
"""Free device from pci resource tracker
:param dev: cloned pci device object that needs to be free
:param instance: the instance that this pci device
is allocated to
for pci_dev in self.pci_devs:
# Find the matching pci device in the pci resource tracker.
# Once found, free it.
if == and dev.instance_uuid == instance['uuid']:
instance['uuid'], pci_dev, self.allocations)
instance['uuid'], pci_dev,
def _remove_device_from_pci_mapping(
self, instance_uuid, pci_device, pci_mapping):
"""Remove a PCI device from allocations or claims.
If there are no more PCI devices, pop the uuid.
pci_devices = pci_mapping.get(instance_uuid, [])
if pci_device in pci_devices:
if len(pci_devices) == 0:
pci_mapping.pop(instance_uuid, None)
def _free_device(self, dev, instance=None):
freed_devs =
stale = self.stale.pop(dev.address, None)
if stale:
for dev in freed_devs:
def _free_instance(self, instance):
# Note(yjiang5): When an instance is resized, the devices in the
# destination node are claimed to the instance in prep_resize stage.
# However, the instance contains only allocated devices
# information, not the claimed one. So we can't use
# instance['pci_devices'] to check the devices to be freed.
for dev in self.pci_devs:
if dev.status in (fields.PciDeviceStatus.CLAIMED,
if dev.instance_uuid == instance['uuid']:
def free_instance(self, context, instance):
if self.allocations.pop(instance['uuid'], None):
elif['uuid'], None):
def update_pci_for_instance(self, context, instance, sign):
"""Update PCI usage information if devices are de/allocated.
if not self.pci_devs:
if sign == -1:
self.free_instance(context, instance)
if sign == 1:
def clean_usage(self, instances, migrations, orphans):
"""Remove all usages for instances not passed in the parameter.
The caller should hold the COMPUTE_RESOURCE_SEMAPHORE lock
existed = set(inst['uuid'] for inst in instances)
existed |= set(mig['instance_uuid'] for mig in migrations)
existed |= set(inst['uuid'] for inst in orphans)
# need to copy keys, because the dict is modified in the loop body
for uuid in list(
if uuid not in existed:
devs =, [])
for dev in devs:
# need to copy keys, because the dict is modified in the loop body
for uuid in list(self.allocations):
if uuid not in existed:
devs = self.allocations.pop(uuid, [])
for dev in devs:
def get_instance_pci_devs(inst, request_id=None):
"""Get the devices allocated to one or all requests for an instance.
- For generic PCI request, the request id is None.
- For sr-iov networking, the request id is a valid uuid
- There are a couple of cases where all the PCI devices allocated to an
instance need to be returned. Refer to libvirt driver that handles
soft_reboot and hard_boot of 'xen' instances.
pci_devices = inst.pci_devices
if pci_devices is None:
return []
return [device for device in pci_devices if
device.request_id == request_id or request_id == 'all']