OpenStack Common DB Code
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# Copyright 2010 United States Government as represented by the
# Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
# All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""Session Handling for SQLAlchemy backend.
Recommended ways to use sessions within this framework:
* Don't use them explicitly; this is like running with ``AUTOCOMMIT=1``.
`model_query()` will implicitly use a session when called without one
supplied. This is the ideal situation because it will allow queries
to be automatically retried if the database connection is interrupted.
.. note:: Automatic retry will be enabled in a future patch.
It is generally fine to issue several queries in a row like this. Even though
they may be run in separate transactions and/or separate sessions, each one
will see the data from the prior calls. If needed, undo- or rollback-like
functionality should be handled at a logical level. For an example, look at
the code around quotas and `reservation_rollback()`.
Examples:
.. code:: python
def get_foo(context, foo):
return (model_query(context, models.Foo).
filter_by(foo=foo).
first())
def update_foo(context, id, newfoo):
(model_query(context, models.Foo).
filter_by(id=id).
update({'foo': newfoo}))
def create_foo(context, values):
foo_ref = models.Foo()
foo_ref.update(values)
foo_ref.save()
return foo_ref
* Within the scope of a single method, keep all the reads and writes within
the context managed by a single session. In this way, the session's
`__exit__` handler will take care of calling `flush()` and `commit()` for
you. If using this approach, you should not explicitly call `flush()` or
`commit()`. Any error within the context of the session will cause the
session to emit a `ROLLBACK`. Database errors like `IntegrityError` will be
raised in `session`'s `__exit__` handler, and any try/except within the
context managed by `session` will not be triggered. And catching other
non-database errors in the session will not trigger the ROLLBACK, so
exception handlers should always be outside the session, unless the
developer wants to do a partial commit on purpose. If the connection is
dropped before this is possible, the database will implicitly roll back the
transaction.
.. note:: Statements in the session scope will not be automatically retried.
If you create models within the session, they need to be added, but you
do not need to call `model.save()`:
.. code:: python
def create_many_foo(context, foos):
session = sessionmaker()
with session.begin():
for foo in foos:
foo_ref = models.Foo()
foo_ref.update(foo)
session.add(foo_ref)
def update_bar(context, foo_id, newbar):
session = sessionmaker()
with session.begin():
foo_ref = (model_query(context, models.Foo, session).
filter_by(id=foo_id).
first())
(model_query(context, models.Bar, session).
filter_by(id=foo_ref['bar_id']).
update({'bar': newbar}))
.. note:: `update_bar` is a trivially simple example of using
``with session.begin``. Whereas `create_many_foo` is a good example of
when a transaction is needed, it is always best to use as few queries as
possible.
The two queries in `update_bar` can be better expressed using a single query
which avoids the need for an explicit transaction. It can be expressed like
so:
.. code:: python
def update_bar(context, foo_id, newbar):
subq = (model_query(context, models.Foo.id).
filter_by(id=foo_id).
limit(1).
subquery())
(model_query(context, models.Bar).
filter_by(id=subq.as_scalar()).
update({'bar': newbar}))
For reference, this emits approximately the following SQL statement:
.. code:: sql
UPDATE bar SET bar = ${newbar}
WHERE id=(SELECT bar_id FROM foo WHERE id = ${foo_id} LIMIT 1);
.. note:: `create_duplicate_foo` is a trivially simple example of catching an
exception while using ``with session.begin``. Here create two duplicate
instances with same primary key, must catch the exception out of context
managed by a single session:
.. code:: python
def create_duplicate_foo(context):
foo1 = models.Foo()
foo2 = models.Foo()
foo1.id = foo2.id = 1
session = sessionmaker()
try:
with session.begin():
session.add(foo1)
session.add(foo2)
except exception.DBDuplicateEntry as e:
handle_error(e)
* Passing an active session between methods. Sessions should only be passed
to private methods. The private method must use a subtransaction; otherwise
SQLAlchemy will throw an error when you call `session.begin()` on an existing
transaction. Public methods should not accept a session parameter and should
not be involved in sessions within the caller's scope.
Note that this incurs more overhead in SQLAlchemy than the above means
due to nesting transactions, and it is not possible to implicitly retry
failed database operations when using this approach.
This also makes code somewhat more difficult to read and debug, because a
single database transaction spans more than one method. Error handling
becomes less clear in this situation. When this is needed for code clarity,
it should be clearly documented.
.. code:: python
def myfunc(foo):
session = sessionmaker()
with session.begin():
# do some database things
bar = _private_func(foo, session)
return bar
def _private_func(foo, session=None):
if not session:
session = sessionmaker()
with session.begin(subtransaction=True):
# do some other database things
return bar
There are some things which it is best to avoid:
* Don't keep a transaction open any longer than necessary.
This means that your ``with session.begin()`` block should be as short
as possible, while still containing all the related calls for that
transaction.
* Avoid ``with_lockmode('UPDATE')`` when possible.
In MySQL/InnoDB, when a ``SELECT ... FOR UPDATE`` query does not match
any rows, it will take a gap-lock. This is a form of write-lock on the
"gap" where no rows exist, and prevents any other writes to that space.
This can effectively prevent any INSERT into a table by locking the gap
at the end of the index. Similar problems will occur if the SELECT FOR UPDATE
has an overly broad WHERE clause, or doesn't properly use an index.
One idea proposed at ODS Fall '12 was to use a normal SELECT to test the
number of rows matching a query, and if only one row is returned,
then issue the SELECT FOR UPDATE.
The better long-term solution is to use
``INSERT .. ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE``.
However, this can not be done until the "deleted" columns are removed and
proper UNIQUE constraints are added to the tables.
Enabling soft deletes:
* To use/enable soft-deletes, the `SoftDeleteMixin` must be added
to your model class. For example:
.. code:: python
class NovaBase(models.SoftDeleteMixin, models.ModelBase):
pass
Efficient use of soft deletes:
* There are two possible ways to mark a record as deleted:
`model.soft_delete()` and `query.soft_delete()`.
The `model.soft_delete()` method works with a single already-fetched entry.
`query.soft_delete()` makes only one db request for all entries that
correspond to the query.
* In almost all cases you should use `query.soft_delete()`. Some examples:
.. code:: python
def soft_delete_bar():
count = model_query(BarModel).find(some_condition).soft_delete()
if count == 0:
raise Exception("0 entries were soft deleted")
def complex_soft_delete_with_synchronization_bar(session=None):
if session is None:
session = sessionmaker()
with session.begin(subtransactions=True):
count = (model_query(BarModel).
find(some_condition).
soft_delete(synchronize_session=True))
# Here synchronize_session is required, because we
# don't know what is going on in outer session.
if count == 0:
raise Exception("0 entries were soft deleted")
* There is only one situation where `model.soft_delete()` is appropriate: when
you fetch a single record, work with it, and mark it as deleted in the same
transaction.
.. code:: python
def soft_delete_bar_model():
session = sessionmaker()
with session.begin():
bar_ref = model_query(BarModel).find(some_condition).first()
# Work with bar_ref
bar_ref.soft_delete(session=session)
However, if you need to work with all entries that correspond to query and
then soft delete them you should use the `query.soft_delete()` method:
.. code:: python
def soft_delete_multi_models():
session = sessionmaker()
with session.begin():
query = (model_query(BarModel, session=session).
find(some_condition))
model_refs = query.all()
# Work with model_refs
query.soft_delete(synchronize_session=False)
# synchronize_session=False should be set if there is no outer
# session and these entries are not used after this.
When working with many rows, it is very important to use query.soft_delete,
which issues a single query. Using `model.soft_delete()`, as in the following
example, is very inefficient.
.. code:: python
for bar_ref in bar_refs:
bar_ref.soft_delete(session=session)
# This will produce count(bar_refs) db requests.
"""
import functools
import logging
import re
import time
import six
from sqlalchemy import exc as sqla_exc
from sqlalchemy.interfaces import PoolListener
import sqlalchemy.orm
from sqlalchemy.pool import NullPool, StaticPool
from sqlalchemy.sql.expression import literal_column
from oslo.db import exception
from oslo.db import options
from oslo.db.openstack.common.gettextutils import _LE, _LW
from oslo.db.openstack.common import timeutils
LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)
class SqliteForeignKeysListener(PoolListener):
"""Ensures that the foreign key constraints are enforced in SQLite.
The foreign key constraints are disabled by default in SQLite,
so the foreign key constraints will be enabled here for every
database connection
"""
def connect(self, dbapi_con, con_record):
dbapi_con.execute('pragma foreign_keys=ON')
# note(boris-42): In current versions of DB backends unique constraint
# violation messages follow the structure:
#
# sqlite:
# 1 column - (IntegrityError) column c1 is not unique
# N columns - (IntegrityError) column c1, c2, ..., N are not unique
#
# sqlite since 3.7.16:
# 1 column - (IntegrityError) UNIQUE constraint failed: tbl.k1
#
# N columns - (IntegrityError) UNIQUE constraint failed: tbl.k1, tbl.k2
#
# postgres:
# 1 column - (IntegrityError) duplicate key value violates unique
# constraint "users_c1_key"
# N columns - (IntegrityError) duplicate key value violates unique
# constraint "name_of_our_constraint"
#
# mysql:
# 1 column - (IntegrityError) (1062, "Duplicate entry 'value_of_c1' for key
# 'c1'")
# N columns - (IntegrityError) (1062, "Duplicate entry 'values joined
# with -' for key 'name_of_our_constraint'")
#
# ibm_db_sa:
# N columns - (IntegrityError) SQL0803N One or more values in the INSERT
# statement, UPDATE statement, or foreign key update caused by a
# DELETE statement are not valid because the primary key, unique
# constraint or unique index identified by "2" constrains table
# "NOVA.KEY_PAIRS" from having duplicate values for the index
# key.
_DUP_KEY_RE_DB = {
"sqlite": (re.compile(r"^.*columns?([^)]+)(is|are)\s+not\s+unique$"),
re.compile(r"^.*UNIQUE\s+constraint\s+failed:\s+(.+)$")),
"postgresql": (re.compile(r"^.*duplicate\s+key.*\"([^\"]+)\"\s*\n.*$"),),
"mysql": (re.compile(r"^.*\(1062,.*'([^\']+)'\"\)$"),),
"ibm_db_sa": (re.compile(r"^.*SQL0803N.*$"),),
}
def _raise_if_duplicate_entry_error(integrity_error, engine_name):
"""Raise exception if two entries are duplicated.
In this function will be raised DBDuplicateEntry exception if integrity
error wrap unique constraint violation.
"""
def get_columns_from_uniq_cons_or_name(columns):
# note(vsergeyev): UniqueConstraint name convention: "uniq_t0c10c2"
# where `t` it is table name and columns `c1`, `c2`
# are in UniqueConstraint.
uniqbase = "uniq_"
if not columns.startswith(uniqbase):
if engine_name == "postgresql":
return [columns[columns.index("_") + 1:columns.rindex("_")]]
return [columns]
return columns[len(uniqbase):].split("0")[1:]
if engine_name not in ("ibm_db_sa", "mysql", "sqlite", "postgresql"):
return
# FIXME(johannes): The usage of the .message attribute has been
# deprecated since Python 2.6. However, the exceptions raised by
# SQLAlchemy can differ when using unicode() and accessing .message.
# An audit across all three supported engines will be necessary to
# ensure there are no regressions.
for pattern in _DUP_KEY_RE_DB[engine_name]:
match = pattern.match(integrity_error.message)
if match:
break
else:
return
# NOTE(mriedem): The ibm_db_sa integrity error message doesn't provide the
# columns so we have to omit that from the DBDuplicateEntry error.
columns = ''
if engine_name != 'ibm_db_sa':
columns = match.group(1)
if engine_name == "sqlite":
columns = [c.split('.')[-1] for c in columns.strip().split(", ")]
else:
columns = get_columns_from_uniq_cons_or_name(columns)
raise exception.DBDuplicateEntry(columns, integrity_error)
# NOTE(comstud): In current versions of DB backends, Deadlock violation
# messages follow the structure:
#
# mysql:
# (OperationalError) (1213, 'Deadlock found when trying to get lock; try '
# 'restarting transaction') <query_str> <query_args>
_DEADLOCK_RE_DB = {
"mysql": re.compile(r"^.*\(1213, 'Deadlock.*")
}
def _raise_if_deadlock_error(operational_error, engine_name):
"""Raise exception on deadlock condition.
Raise DBDeadlock exception if OperationalError contains a Deadlock
condition.
"""
re = _DEADLOCK_RE_DB.get(engine_name)
if re is None:
return
# FIXME(johannes): The usage of the .message attribute has been
# deprecated since Python 2.6. However, the exceptions raised by
# SQLAlchemy can differ when using unicode() and accessing .message.
# An audit across all three supported engines will be necessary to
# ensure there are no regressions.
m = re.match(operational_error.message)
if not m:
return
raise exception.DBDeadlock(operational_error)
def _wrap_db_error(f):
@functools.wraps(f)
def _wrap(self, *args, **kwargs):
try:
assert issubclass(
self.__class__, sqlalchemy.orm.session.Session
), ('_wrap_db_error() can only be applied to methods of '
'subclasses of sqlalchemy.orm.session.Session.')
return f(self, *args, **kwargs)
except UnicodeEncodeError:
raise exception.DBInvalidUnicodeParameter()
except sqla_exc.OperationalError as e:
_raise_if_db_connection_lost(e, self.bind)
_raise_if_deadlock_error(e, self.bind.dialect.name)
# NOTE(comstud): A lot of code is checking for OperationalError
# so let's not wrap it for now.
raise
# note(boris-42): We should catch unique constraint violation and
# wrap it by our own DBDuplicateEntry exception. Unique constraint
# violation is wrapped by IntegrityError.
except sqla_exc.IntegrityError as e:
# note(boris-42): SqlAlchemy doesn't unify errors from different
# DBs so we must do this. Also in some tables (for example
# instance_types) there are more than one unique constraint. This
# means we should get names of columns, which values violate
# unique constraint, from error message.
_raise_if_duplicate_entry_error(e, self.bind.dialect.name)
raise exception.DBError(e)
except Exception as e:
LOG.exception(_LE('DB exception wrapped.'))
raise exception.DBError(e)
return _wrap
def _synchronous_switch_listener(dbapi_conn, connection_rec):
"""Switch sqlite connections to non-synchronous mode."""
dbapi_conn.execute("PRAGMA synchronous = OFF")
def _add_regexp_listener(dbapi_con, con_record):
"""Add REGEXP function to sqlite connections."""
def regexp(expr, item):
reg = re.compile(expr)
return reg.search(six.text_type(item)) is not None
dbapi_con.create_function('regexp', 2, regexp)
def _thread_yield(dbapi_con, con_record):
"""Ensure other greenthreads get a chance to be executed.
If we use eventlet.monkey_patch(), eventlet.greenthread.sleep(0) will
execute instead of time.sleep(0).
Force a context switch. With common database backends (eg MySQLdb and
sqlite), there is no implicit yield caused by network I/O since they are
implemented by C libraries that eventlet cannot monkey patch.
"""
time.sleep(0)
def _ping_listener(engine, dbapi_conn, connection_rec, connection_proxy):
"""Ensures that MySQL, PostgreSQL or DB2 connections are alive.
Borrowed from:
http://groups.google.com/group/sqlalchemy/msg/a4ce563d802c929f
"""
cursor = dbapi_conn.cursor()
try:
ping_sql = 'select 1'
if engine.name == 'ibm_db_sa':
# DB2 requires a table expression
ping_sql = 'select 1 from (values (1)) AS t1'
cursor.execute(ping_sql)
except Exception as ex:
if engine.dialect.is_disconnect(ex, dbapi_conn, cursor):
msg = _LW('Database server has gone away: %s') % ex
LOG.warning(msg)
# if the database server has gone away, all connections in the pool
# have become invalid and we can safely close all of them here,
# rather than waste time on checking of every single connection
engine.dispose()
# this will be handled by SQLAlchemy and will force it to create
# a new connection and retry the original action
raise sqla_exc.DisconnectionError(msg)
else:
raise
def _set_session_sql_mode(dbapi_con, connection_rec, sql_mode=None):
"""Set the sql_mode session variable.
MySQL supports several server modes. The default is None, but sessions
may choose to enable server modes like TRADITIONAL, ANSI,
several STRICT_* modes and others.
Note: passing in '' (empty string) for sql_mode clears
the SQL mode for the session, overriding a potentially set
server default.
"""
cursor = dbapi_con.cursor()
cursor.execute("SET SESSION sql_mode = %s", [sql_mode])
def _mysql_get_effective_sql_mode(engine):
"""Returns the effective SQL mode for connections from the engine pool.
Returns ``None`` if the mode isn't available, otherwise returns the mode.
"""
# Get the real effective SQL mode. Even when unset by
# our own config, the server may still be operating in a specific
# SQL mode as set by the server configuration.
# Also note that the checkout listener will be called on execute to
# set the mode if it's registered.
row = engine.execute("SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'sql_mode'").fetchone()
if row is None:
return
return row[1]
def _mysql_check_effective_sql_mode(engine):
"""Logs a message based on the effective SQL mode for MySQL connections."""
realmode = _mysql_get_effective_sql_mode(engine)
if realmode is None:
LOG.warning(_LW('Unable to detect effective SQL mode'))
return
LOG.debug('MySQL server mode set to %s', realmode)
# 'TRADITIONAL' mode enables several other modes, so
# we need a substring match here
if not ('TRADITIONAL' in realmode.upper() or
'STRICT_ALL_TABLES' in realmode.upper()):
LOG.warning(_LW("MySQL SQL mode is '%s', "
"consider enabling TRADITIONAL or STRICT_ALL_TABLES"),
realmode)
def _mysql_set_mode_callback(engine, sql_mode):
if sql_mode is not None:
mode_callback = functools.partial(_set_session_sql_mode,
sql_mode=sql_mode)
sqlalchemy.event.listen(engine, 'connect', mode_callback)
_mysql_check_effective_sql_mode(engine)
def _is_db_connection_error(args):
"""Return True if error in connecting to db."""
# NOTE(adam_g): This is currently MySQL specific and needs to be extended
# to support Postgres and others.
# For the db2, the error code is -30081 since the db2 is still not ready
conn_err_codes = ('2002', '2003', '2006', '2013', '-30081')
for err_code in conn_err_codes:
if args.find(err_code) != -1:
return True
return False
def _raise_if_db_connection_lost(error, engine):
# NOTE(vsergeyev): Function is_disconnect(e, connection, cursor)
# requires connection and cursor in incoming parameters,
# but we have no possibility to create connection if DB
# is not available, so in such case reconnect fails.
# But is_disconnect() ignores these parameters, so it
# makes sense to pass to function None as placeholder
# instead of connection and cursor.
if engine.dialect.is_disconnect(error, None, None):
raise exception.DBConnectionError(error)
def create_engine(sql_connection, sqlite_fk=False, mysql_sql_mode=None,
idle_timeout=3600,
connection_debug=0, max_pool_size=None, max_overflow=None,
pool_timeout=None, sqlite_synchronous=True,
connection_trace=False, max_retries=10, retry_interval=10,
thread_checkin=True):
"""Return a new SQLAlchemy engine."""
connection_dict = sqlalchemy.engine.url.make_url(sql_connection)
engine_args = {
"pool_recycle": idle_timeout,
'convert_unicode': True,
}
if connection_debug >= 0:
# Map SQL debug level to Python log level
logger = logging.getLogger('sqlalchemy.engine')
if connection_debug >= 100:
logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
elif connection_debug >= 50:
logger.setLevel(logging.INFO)
else:
logger.setLevel(logging.WARNING)
if "sqlite" in connection_dict.drivername:
if sqlite_fk:
engine_args["listeners"] = [SqliteForeignKeysListener()]
engine_args["poolclass"] = NullPool
if sql_connection == "sqlite://":
engine_args["poolclass"] = StaticPool
engine_args["connect_args"] = {'check_same_thread': False}
else:
if max_pool_size is not None:
engine_args['pool_size'] = max_pool_size
if max_overflow is not None:
engine_args['max_overflow'] = max_overflow
if pool_timeout is not None:
engine_args['pool_timeout'] = pool_timeout
engine = sqlalchemy.create_engine(sql_connection, **engine_args)
if thread_checkin:
sqlalchemy.event.listen(engine, 'checkin', _thread_yield)
if engine.name in ('ibm_db_sa', 'mysql', 'postgresql'):
ping_callback = functools.partial(_ping_listener, engine)
sqlalchemy.event.listen(engine, 'checkout', ping_callback)
if engine.name == 'mysql':
if mysql_sql_mode:
_mysql_set_mode_callback(engine, mysql_sql_mode)
elif 'sqlite' in connection_dict.drivername:
if not sqlite_synchronous:
sqlalchemy.event.listen(engine, 'connect',
_synchronous_switch_listener)
sqlalchemy.event.listen(engine, 'connect', _add_regexp_listener)
if connection_trace and engine.dialect.dbapi.__name__ == 'MySQLdb':
_patch_mysqldb_with_stacktrace_comments()
try:
engine.connect()
except sqla_exc.OperationalError as e:
if not _is_db_connection_error(e.args[0]):
raise
remaining = max_retries
if remaining == -1:
remaining = 'infinite'
while True:
msg = _LW('SQL connection failed. %s attempts left.')
LOG.warning(msg, remaining)
if remaining != 'infinite':
remaining -= 1
time.sleep(retry_interval)
try:
engine.connect()
break
except sqla_exc.OperationalError as e:
if (remaining != 'infinite' and remaining == 0) or \
not _is_db_connection_error(e.args[0]):
raise
return engine
class Query(sqlalchemy.orm.query.Query):
"""Subclass of sqlalchemy.query with soft_delete() method."""
def soft_delete(self, synchronize_session='evaluate'):
return self.update({'deleted': literal_column('id'),
'updated_at': literal_column('updated_at'),
'deleted_at': timeutils.utcnow()},
synchronize_session=synchronize_session)
class Session(sqlalchemy.orm.session.Session):
"""Custom Session class to avoid SqlAlchemy Session monkey patching."""
@_wrap_db_error
def query(self, *args, **kwargs):
return super(Session, self).query(*args, **kwargs)
@_wrap_db_error
def flush(self, *args, **kwargs):
return super(Session, self).flush(*args, **kwargs)
@_wrap_db_error
def execute(self, *args, **kwargs):
return super(Session, self).execute(*args, **kwargs)
def get_maker(engine, autocommit=True, expire_on_commit=False):
"""Return a SQLAlchemy sessionmaker using the given engine."""
return sqlalchemy.orm.sessionmaker(bind=engine,
class_=Session,
autocommit=autocommit,
expire_on_commit=expire_on_commit,
query_cls=Query)
def _patch_mysqldb_with_stacktrace_comments():
"""Adds current stack trace as a comment in queries.
Patches MySQLdb.cursors.BaseCursor._do_query.
"""
import MySQLdb.cursors
import traceback
old_mysql_do_query = MySQLdb.cursors.BaseCursor._do_query
def _do_query(self, q):
stack = ''
for filename, line, method, function in traceback.extract_stack():
# exclude various common things from trace
if filename.endswith('session.py') and method == '_do_query':
continue
if filename.endswith('api.py') and method == 'wrapper':
continue
if filename.endswith('utils.py') and method == '_inner':
continue
if filename.endswith('exception.py') and method == '_wrap':
continue
# db/api is just a wrapper around db/sqlalchemy/api
if filename.endswith('db/api.py'):
continue
# only trace inside oslo
index = filename.rfind('oslo')
if index == -1:
continue
stack += "File:%s:%s Method:%s() Line:%s | " \
% (filename[index:], line, method, function)
# strip trailing " | " from stack
if stack:
stack = stack[:-3]
qq = "%s /* %s */" % (q, stack)
else:
qq = q
old_mysql_do_query(self, qq)
setattr(MySQLdb.cursors.BaseCursor, '_do_query', _do_query)
class EngineFacade(object):
"""A helper class for removing of global engine instances from oslo.db.
As a library, oslo.db can't decide where to store/when to create engine
and sessionmaker instances, so this must be left for a target application.
On the other hand, in order to simplify the adoption of oslo.db changes,
we'll provide a helper class, which creates engine and sessionmaker
on its instantiation and provides get_engine()/get_session() methods
that are compatible with corresponding utility functions that currently
exist in target projects, e.g. in Nova.
engine/sessionmaker instances will still be global (and they are meant to
be global), but they will be stored in the app context, rather that in the
oslo.db context.
Note: using of this helper is completely optional and you are encouraged to
integrate engine/sessionmaker instances into your apps any way you like
(e.g. one might want to bind a session to a request context). Two important
things to remember:
1. An Engine instance is effectively a pool of DB connections, so it's
meant to be shared (and it's thread-safe).
2. A Session instance is not meant to be shared and represents a DB
transactional context (i.e. it's not thread-safe). sessionmaker is
a factory of sessions.
"""
def __init__(self, sql_connection, slave_connection=None,
sqlite_fk=False, autocommit=True,
expire_on_commit=False, **kwargs):
"""Initialize engine and sessionmaker instances.
:param sql_connection: the connection string for the database to use
:type sql_connection: string
:param slave_connection: the connection string for the 'slave' database
to use. If not provided, the master database
will be used for all operations. Note: this
is meant to be used for offloading of read
operations to asynchronously replicated slaves
to reduce the load on the master database.
:type slave_connection: string
:param sqlite_fk: enable foreign keys in SQLite
:type sqlite_fk: bool
:param autocommit: use autocommit mode for created Session instances
:type autocommit: bool
:param expire_on_commit: expire session objects on commit
:type expire_on_commit: bool
Keyword arguments:
:keyword mysql_sql_mode: the SQL mode to be used for MySQL sessions.
(defaults to TRADITIONAL)
:keyword idle_timeout: timeout before idle sql connections are reaped
(defaults to 3600)
:keyword connection_debug: verbosity of SQL debugging information.
-1=Off, 0=None, 100=Everything (defaults
to 0)
:keyword max_pool_size: maximum number of SQL connections to keep open
in a pool (defaults to SQLAlchemy settings)
:keyword max_overflow: if set, use this value for max_overflow with
sqlalchemy (defaults to SQLAlchemy settings)
:keyword pool_timeout: if set, use this value for pool_timeout with
sqlalchemy (defaults to SQLAlchemy settings)
:keyword sqlite_synchronous: if True, SQLite uses synchronous mode
(defaults to True)
:keyword connection_trace: add python stack traces to SQL as comment
strings (defaults to False)
:keyword max_retries: maximum db connection retries during startup.
(setting -1 implies an infinite retry count)
(defaults to 10)
:keyword retry_interval: interval between retries of opening a sql
connection (defaults to 10)
:keyword thread_checkin: boolean that indicates that between each
engine checkin event a sleep(0) will occur to
allow other greenthreads to run (defaults to
True)
"""
super(EngineFacade, self).__init__()
engine_kwargs = {
'sqlite_fk': sqlite_fk,
'mysql_sql_mode': kwargs.get('mysql_sql_mode', 'TRADITIONAL'),
'idle_timeout': kwargs.get('idle_timeout', 3600),
'connection_debug': kwargs.get('connection_debug', 0),
'max_pool_size': kwargs.get('max_pool_size'),
'max_overflow': kwargs.get('max_overflow'),
'pool_timeout': kwargs.get('pool_timeout'),
'sqlite_synchronous': kwargs.get('sqlite_synchronous', True),
'connection_trace': kwargs.get('connection_trace', False),
'max_retries': kwargs.get('max_retries', 10),
'retry_interval': kwargs.get('retry_interval', 10),
'thread_checkin': kwargs.get('thread_checkin', True)
}
maker_kwargs = {
'autocommit': autocommit,
'expire_on_commit': expire_on_commit
}
self._engine = create_engine(sql_connection=sql_connection,
**engine_kwargs)
self._session_maker = get_maker(engine=self._engine,
**maker_kwargs)
if slave_connection:
self._slave_engine = create_engine(sql_connection=slave_connection,
**engine_kwargs)
self._slave_session_maker = get_maker(engine=self._slave_engine,
**maker_kwargs)
else:
self._slave_engine = None
self._slave_session_maker = None
def get_engine(self, use_slave=False):
"""Get the engine instance (note, that it's shared).
:param use_slave: if possible, use 'slave' database for this engine.
If the connection string for the slave database
wasn't provided, 'master' engine will be returned.
(defaults to False)
:type use_slave: bool
"""
if use_slave and self._slave_engine:
return self._slave_engine
return self._engine
def get_session(self, use_slave=False, **kwargs):
"""Get a Session instance.
:param use_slave: if possible, use 'slave' database connection for
this session. If the connection string for the
slave database wasn't provided, a session bound
to the 'master' engine will be returned.
(defaults to False)
:type use_slave: bool
Keyword arugments will be passed to a sessionmaker instance as is (if
passed, they will override the ones used when the sessionmaker instance
was created). See SQLAlchemy Session docs for details.
"""
if use_slave and self._slave_session_maker:
return self._slave_session_maker(**kwargs)
return self._session_maker(**kwargs)
@classmethod
def from_config(cls, conf,
sqlite_fk=False, autocommit=True, expire_on_commit=False):
"""Initialize EngineFacade using oslo.config config instance options.
:param conf: oslo.config config instance
:type conf: oslo.config.cfg.ConfigOpts
:param sqlite_fk: enable foreign keys in SQLite
:type sqlite_fk: bool
:param autocommit: use autocommit mode for created Session instances
:type autocommit: bool
:param expire_on_commit: expire session objects on commit
:type expire_on_commit: bool
"""
conf.register_opts(options.database_opts, 'database')
return cls(sql_connection=conf.database.connection,
slave_connection=conf.database.slave_connection,
sqlite_fk=sqlite_fk,
autocommit=autocommit,
expire_on_commit=expire_on_commit,
**dict(conf.database.items()))