Utility to launch and manage containers using YAML based configuration data
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.

842 lines
30 KiB

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
import collections
import inspect
import json
import mock
import tenacity
from paunch.builder import compose1
from paunch import runner
from paunch.tests import base
class TestComposeV1Builder(base.TestCase):
def test_apply(self):
orig_call = tenacity.wait.wait_random_exponential.__call__
orig_argspec = inspect.getargspec(orig_call)
config = {
'one': {
'start_order': 0,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
'two': {
'start_order': 1,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
'three': {
'start_order': 2,
'image': 'centos:6',
},
'four': {
'start_order': 10,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
'four_ls': {
'action': 'exec',
'start_order': 20,
'command': ['four', 'ls', '-l', '/']
}
}
r = runner.DockerRunner(managed_by='tester', docker_cmd='docker')
exe = mock.Mock()
exe.side_effect = [
('exists', '', 0), # inspect for image centos:6
('', '', 1), # inspect for missing image centos:7
('Pulled centos:7', 'ouch', 1), # pull centos:6 fails
('Pulled centos:7', '', 0), # pull centos:6 succeeds
('', '', 0), # ps for delete_missing_and_updated container_names
('', '', 0), # ps2 for delete_missing_and_updated container_names
('', '', 0), # ps for after delete_missing_and_updated renames
('', '', 0), # ps2 for after delete_missing_and_updated renames
('', '', 0), # ps to only create containers which don't exist
('', '', 0), # ps2 to only create containers which don't exist
('Created one-12345678', '', 0),
('Created two-12345678', '', 0),
('Created three-12345678', '', 0),
('Created four-12345678', '', 0),
('a\nb\nc', '', 0)
]
r.discover_container_name = lambda n, c: '%s-12345678' % n
r.unique_container_name = lambda n: '%s-12345678' % n
r.execute = exe
with mock.patch('tenacity.wait.wait_random_exponential.__call__') as f:
f.return_value = 0
with mock.patch('inspect.getargspec') as mock_args:
mock_args.return_value = orig_argspec
builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder('foo', config, r)
stdout, stderr, deploy_status_code = builder.apply()
self.assertEqual(0, deploy_status_code)
self.assertEqual([
'Pulled centos:7',
'Created one-12345678',
'Created two-12345678',
'Created three-12345678',
'Created four-12345678',
'a\nb\nc'
], stdout)
self.assertEqual([], stderr)
exe.assert_has_calls([
# inspect existing image centos:6
mock.call(
['docker', 'inspect', '--type', 'image',
'--format', 'exists', 'centos:6']
),
# inspect and pull missing image centos:7
mock.call(
['docker', 'inspect', '--type', 'image',
'--format', 'exists', 'centos:7']
),
# first pull attempt fails
mock.call(
['docker', 'pull', 'centos:7']
),
# second pull attempt succeeds
mock.call(
['docker', 'pull', 'centos:7']
),
# ps for delete_missing_and_updated container_names
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=tester',
'--filter', 'label=config_id=foo',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# ps2 for delete_missing_and_updated container_names
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=paunch',
'--filter', 'label=config_id=foo',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# ps for after delete_missing_and_updated renames
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=tester',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# ps2 for after delete_missing_and_updated renames
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=paunch',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# ps to only create containers which don't exist
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=tester',
'--filter', 'label=config_id=foo',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# ps2 to only create containers which don't exist
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=paunch',
'--filter', 'label=config_id=foo',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# run one
mock.call(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'one-12345678',
'--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=one',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=%s' % json.dumps(config['one']),
'--detach=true', 'centos:7']
),
# run two
mock.call(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'two-12345678',
'--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=two',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=%s' % json.dumps(config['two']),
'--detach=true', 'centos:7']
),
# run three
mock.call(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'three-12345678',
'--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=three',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=%s' % json.dumps(config['three']),
'--detach=true', 'centos:6']
),
# run four
mock.call(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'four-12345678',
'--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=four',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=%s' % json.dumps(config['four']),
'--detach=true', 'centos:7']
),
# execute within four
mock.call(
['docker', 'exec', 'four-12345678', 'ls', '-l', '/']
),
])
def test_apply_idempotency(self):
config = {
# not running yet
'one': {
'start_order': 0,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
# running, but with a different config
'two': {
'start_order': 1,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
# running with the same config
'three': {
'start_order': 2,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
# not running yet
'four': {
'start_order': 10,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
'four_ls': {
'action': 'exec',
'start_order': 20,
'command': ['four', 'ls', '-l', '/']
}
}
r = runner.DockerRunner(managed_by='tester', docker_cmd='docker')
exe = mock.Mock()
exe.side_effect = [
# inspect for image centos:7
('exists', '', 0),
# ps for delete_missing_and_updated container_names
('''five five
six six
two-12345678 two
three-12345678 three''', '', 0),
# rm five
('', '', 0),
# rm six
('', '', 0),
# inspect two
('[{"Config": {"Labels": {"config_data": '
'"{\\\"start_order\\\": 1, \\\"image\\\": \\\"centos:6\\\"}"'
'}}}]', '', 0),
# rm two, changed config data
('', '', 0),
# inspect three
('[{"Config": {"Labels": {"config_data": '
'"{\\\"start_order\\\": 2, \\\"image\\\": \\\"centos:7\\\"}"'
'}}}]', '', 0),
# ps for after delete_missing_and_updated renames
('', '', 0),
# ps2 for after delete_missing_and_updated renames
('', '', 0),
# ps to only create containers which don't exist
('three-12345678 three', '', 0),
('Created one-12345678', '', 0),
('Created two-12345678', '', 0),
('Created four-12345678', '', 0),
('a\nb\nc', '', 0)
]
r.discover_container_name = lambda n, c: '%s-12345678' % n
r.unique_container_name = lambda n: '%s-12345678' % n
r.execute = exe
builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder('foo', config, r)
stdout, stderr, deploy_status_code = builder.apply()
self.assertEqual(0, deploy_status_code)
self.assertEqual([
'Created one-12345678',
'Created two-12345678',
'Created four-12345678',
'a\nb\nc'
], stdout)
self.assertEqual([], stderr)
exe.assert_has_calls([
# inspect image centos:7
mock.call(
['docker', 'inspect', '--type', 'image',
'--format', 'exists', 'centos:7']
),
# ps for delete_missing_and_updated container_names
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=tester',
'--filter', 'label=config_id=foo',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# rm containers not in config
mock.call(['docker', 'rm', 'five']),
mock.call(['docker', 'rm', 'six']),
# rm two, changed config
mock.call(['docker', 'inspect', '--type', 'container',
'two-12345678']),
mock.call(['docker', 'rm', 'two-12345678']),
# check three, config hasn't changed
mock.call(['docker', 'inspect', '--type', 'container',
'three-12345678']),
# ps for after delete_missing_and_updated renames
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=tester',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# ps2 for after delete_missing_and_updated renames
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=paunch',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# ps to only create containers which don't exist
mock.call(
['docker', 'ps', '-a',
'--filter', 'label=managed_by=tester',
'--filter', 'label=config_id=foo',
'--format', '{{.Names}} {{.Label "container_name"}}']
),
# run one
mock.call(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'one-12345678',
'--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=one',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=%s' % json.dumps(config['one']),
'--detach=true', 'centos:7']
),
# run two
mock.call(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'two-12345678',
'--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=two',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=%s' % json.dumps(config['two']),
'--detach=true', 'centos:7']
),
# don't run three, its already running
# run four
mock.call(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'four-12345678',
'--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=four',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=%s' % json.dumps(config['four']),
'--detach=true', 'centos:7']
),
# execute within four
mock.call(
['docker', 'exec', 'four-12345678', 'ls', '-l', '/']
),
])
def test_apply_failed_pull(self):
orig_call = tenacity.wait.wait_random_exponential.__call__
orig_argspec = inspect.getargspec(orig_call)
config = {
'one': {
'start_order': 0,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
'two': {
'start_order': 1,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
'three': {
'start_order': 2,
'image': 'centos:6',
},
'four': {
'start_order': 10,
'image': 'centos:7',
},
'four_ls': {
'action': 'exec',
'start_order': 20,
'command': ['four', 'ls', '-l', '/']
}
}
r = runner.DockerRunner(managed_by='tester', docker_cmd='docker')
exe = mock.Mock()
exe.side_effect = [
('exists', '', 0), # inspect for image centos:6
('', '', 1), # inspect for missing image centos:7
('Pulling centos:7', 'ouch', 1), # pull centos:7 failure
('Pulling centos:7', 'ouch', 1), # pull centos:7 retry 2
('Pulling centos:7', 'ouch', 1), # pull centos:7 retry 3
('Pulling centos:7', 'ouch', 1), # pull centos:7 retry 4
]
r.execute = exe
with mock.patch('tenacity.wait.wait_random_exponential.__call__') as f:
f.return_value = 0
with mock.patch('inspect.getargspec') as mock_args:
mock_args.return_value = orig_argspec
builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder('foo', config, r)
stdout, stderr, deploy_status_code = builder.apply()
self.assertEqual(1, deploy_status_code)
self.assertEqual(['Pulling centos:7'], stdout)
self.assertEqual(['ouch'], stderr)
exe.assert_has_calls([
# inspect existing image centos:6
mock.call(
['docker', 'inspect', '--type', 'image',
'--format', 'exists', 'centos:6']
),
# inspect and pull missing image centos:7
mock.call(
['docker', 'inspect', '--type', 'image',
'--format', 'exists', 'centos:7']
),
mock.call(
['docker', 'pull', 'centos:7']
),
])
@mock.patch('paunch.runner.DockerRunner', autospec=True)
def test_label_arguments(self, runner):
r = runner.return_value
r.managed_by = 'tester'
builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder('foo', {}, r)
cmd = []
builder.label_arguments(cmd, 'one')
self.assertEqual(
['--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=one',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=null'],
cmd)
labels = collections.OrderedDict()
labels['foo'] = 'bar'
labels['bar'] = 'baz'
builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder('foo', {}, r, labels=labels)
cmd = []
builder.label_arguments(cmd, 'one')
self.assertEqual(
['--label', 'foo=bar',
'--label', 'bar=baz',
'--label', 'config_id=foo',
'--label', 'container_name=one',
'--label', 'managed_by=tester',
'--label', 'config_data=null'],
cmd)
def test_docker_run_args(self):
config = {
'one': {
'image': 'centos:7',
'privileged': True,
'user': 'bar',
'net': 'host',
'ipc': 'host',
'pid': 'container:bar',
'uts': 'host',
'restart': 'always',
'healthcheck': {
'test': '/bin/true',
'interval': '30s',
'timeout': '10s',
'retries': 3
},
'env_file': '/tmp/foo.env',
'log_tag': '{{.ImageName}}/{{.Name}}/{{.ID}}',
'cpu_shares': 600,
'security_opt': 'label:disable',
'mem_limit': '1G',
'memswap_limit': '1G',
'mem_swappiness': '60'
}
}
builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder('foo', config, None)
cmd = ['docker', 'run', '--name', 'one']
builder.docker_run_args(cmd, 'one')
self.assertEqual(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'one',
'--detach=true', '--env-file=/tmp/foo.env',
'--net=host', '--ipc=host', '--pid=container:bar',
'--uts=host', '--health-cmd', '/bin/true',
'--health-interval=30s',
'--health-timeout=10s', '--health-retries=3',
'--privileged=true', '--restart=always', '--user=bar',
'--log-opt=tag={{.ImageName}}/{{.Name}}/{{.ID}}',
'--cpu-shares=600',
'--memory=1G',
'--memory-swap=1G',
'--memory-swappiness=60',
'--security-opt=label:disable', 'centos:7'],
cmd
)
def test_durations(self):
config = {
'a': {'stop_grace_period': 123},
'b': {'stop_grace_period': 123.5},
'c': {'stop_grace_period': '123.3'},
'd': {'stop_grace_period': '2.5s'},
'e': {'stop_grace_period': '10s'},
'f': {'stop_grace_period': '1m30s'},
'g': {'stop_grace_period': '2h32m'},
'h': {'stop_grace_period': '5h34m56s'},
'i': {'stop_grace_period': '1h1m1s1ms1us'},
}
builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder('foo', config, None)
result = {
'a': '--stop-timeout=123',
'b': '--stop-timeout=123.5',
'c': '--stop-timeout=123.3',
'd': '--stop-timeout=2.5',
'e': '--stop-timeout=10.0',
'f': '--stop-timeout=90.0',
'g': '--stop-timeout=9120.0',
'h': '--stop-timeout=20096.0',
'i': '--stop-timeout=3661.001001',
}
for container, arg in result.items():
cmd = []
builder.docker_run_args(cmd, container)
self.assertIn(arg, cmd)
def test_docker_run_args_lists(self):
config = {
'one': {
'image': 'centos:7',
'detach': False,
'command': 'ls -l /foo',
'remove': True,
'tty': True,
'interactive': True,
'environment': ['FOO=BAR', 'BAR=BAZ'],
'env_file': ['/tmp/foo.env', '/tmp/bar.env'],
'ulimit': ['nofile=1024', 'nproc=1024'],
'volumes': ['/foo:/foo:rw', '/bar:/bar:ro'],
'volumes_from': ['two', 'three'],
'group_add': ['docker', 'zuul']
}
}
builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder('foo', config, None)
cmd = ['docker', 'run', '--name', 'one']
builder.docker_run_args(cmd, 'one')
self.assertEqual(
['docker', 'run', '--name', 'one',
'--env-file=/tmp/foo.env', '--env-file=/tmp/bar.env',
'--env=FOO=BAR', '--env=BAR=BAZ',
'--rm', '--interactive', '--tty',
'--ulimit=nofile=1024', '--ulimit=nproc=1024',
'--group-add=docker', '--group-add=zuul',
'--volume=/foo:/foo:rw', '--volume=/bar:/bar:ro',
'--volumes-from=two', '--volumes-from=three',
'centos:7', 'ls', '-l', '/foo'],
cmd
)
@mock.patch('paunch.runner.DockerRunner', autospec=True)
def test_docker_exec_args(self, runner):
r = runner.return_value
r.discover_container_name.return_value = 'one-12345678'
config = {
'one': {
'command': 'ls -l /foo',
'privileged': True,
'environment': ['FOO=BAR'],
'user': 'bar'
}
}
self.builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder(
'foo', config, runner.return_value)
cmd = ['docker', 'exec']
self.builder.docker_exec_args(cmd, 'one')
self.assertEqual(
['docker', 'exec',
'--privileged=true', '--user=bar',
'--env=FOO=BAR',
'one-12345678', '-l', '/foo'],
cmd
)
def test_command_argument(self):
b = compose1.ComposeV1Builder
self.assertEqual([], b.command_argument(None))
self.assertEqual([], b.command_argument(''))
self.assertEqual([], b.command_argument([]))
self.assertEqual(
['ls', '-l', '/foo-bar'],
b.command_argument(['ls', '-l', '/foo-bar'])
)
self.assertEqual(
['ls', '-l', '/foo-bar'],
b.command_argument('ls -l /foo-bar')
)
self.assertEqual(
['ls', '-l', '/foo bar'],
b.command_argument(['ls', '-l', '/foo bar'])
)
# don't expect quoted spaces to do the right thing
self.assertEqual(
['ls', '-l', '"/foo', 'bar"'],
b.command_argument('ls -l "/foo bar"')
)
@mock.patch('paunch.runner.DockerRunner', autospec=True)
def test_delete_updated_no_change(self, runner):
mock_names = mock.MagicMock()
mock_names.return_value = [['one']]
runner.container_names = mock_names
mock_inspect = mock.MagicMock()
mock_inspect.side_effect = [
{
"Id": ("d038dccebdb0996ed36ab4ff06e7c424b3816d67664aa11e00642"
"be5e00cec55"),
"Config": {
"Labels": {
"config_data": """{
\"start_order\": 0,
\"image": \"centos:7\"
}"""
},
"Image": "127.0.0.1:8787/centos:7"
},
"Image": "sha256:1"
},
"sha256:1"
]
runner.inspect = mock_inspect
mock_remove = mock.MagicMock()
runner.remove_container = mock_remove
mock_rename = mock.MagicMock()
runner.rename_containers = mock_rename
config = {
'one': {
'start_order': 0,
'image': 'centos:7',
}
}
self.builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder(
'one', config, runner.return_value)
self.builder.runner = runner
self.builder.delete_missing_and_updated()
mock_names.assert_called_once_with('one')
calls = [
mock.call('one'),
mock.call('127.0.0.1:8787/centos:7',
'{{index .Id}}',
type='image')
]
mock_inspect.has_calls(calls)
mock_remove.assert_not_called()
mock_rename.assert_called_once_with()
@mock.patch('paunch.runner.DockerRunner', autospec=True)
def test_delete_updated_inspect_empty(self, runner):
mock_names = mock.MagicMock()
mock_names.return_value = [['one']]
runner.container_names = mock_names
mock_inspect = mock.MagicMock()
mock_inspect.return_value = None
runner.inspect = mock_inspect
mock_remove = mock.MagicMock()
runner.remove_container = mock_remove
mock_rename = mock.MagicMock()
runner.rename_containers = mock_rename
config = {
'one': {
'start_order': 0,
'image': 'centos:7',
}
}
self.builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder(
'one', config, runner.return_value)
self.builder.runner = runner
self.builder.delete_missing_and_updated()
mock_names.assert_called_once_with('one')
calls = [
mock.call('one'),
]
mock_inspect.has_calls(calls)
mock_remove.assert_called_once_with('one')
mock_rename.assert_called_once_with()
@mock.patch('paunch.runner.DockerRunner', autospec=True)
def test_delete_updated_no_config_data(self, runner):
mock_names = mock.MagicMock()
mock_names.return_value = [['one']]
runner.container_names = mock_names
mock_inspect = mock.MagicMock()
mock_inspect.side_effect = [
{
"Id": ("d038dccebdb0996ed36ab4ff06e7c424b3816d67664aa11e00642"
"be5e00cec55"),
"Config": {
"Labels": {},
"Image": "127.0.0.1:8787/centos:7"
},
"Image": "sha256:1"
},
"sha256:1"
]
runner.inspect = mock_inspect
mock_remove = mock.MagicMock()
runner.remove_container = mock_remove
mock_rename = mock.MagicMock()
runner.rename_containers = mock_rename
config = {
'one': {
'start_order': 0,
'image': 'centos:7',
}
}
self.builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder(
'one', config, runner.return_value)
self.builder.runner = runner
self.builder.delete_missing_and_updated()
mock_names.assert_called_once_with('one')
calls = [
mock.call('one'),
]
mock_inspect.has_calls(calls)
mock_remove.assert_called_once_with('one')
mock_rename.assert_called_once_with()
@mock.patch('paunch.runner.DockerRunner', autospec=True)
def test_delete_updated_update_config(self, runner):
mock_names = mock.MagicMock()
mock_names.return_value = [['one']]
runner.container_names = mock_names
mock_inspect = mock.MagicMock()
mock_inspect.side_effect = [
{
"Id": ("d038dccebdb0996ed36ab4ff06e7c424b3816d67664aa11e00642"
"be5e00cec55"),
"Config": {
"Labels": {
"config_data": """{
\"start_order\": 1,
\"image": \"centos:7\"
}"""
},
"Image": "127.0.0.1:8787/centos:7"
},
"Image": "sha256:1"
},
"sha256:1"
]
runner.inspect = mock_inspect
mock_remove = mock.MagicMock()
runner.remove_container = mock_remove
mock_rename = mock.MagicMock()
runner.rename_containers = mock_rename
config = {
'one': {
'start_order': 0,
'image': 'centos:7',
}
}
self.builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder(
'one', config, runner.return_value)
self.builder.runner = runner
self.builder.delete_missing_and_updated()
mock_names.assert_called_once_with('one')
calls = [
mock.call('one'),
]
mock_inspect.has_calls(calls)
mock_remove.assert_called_once_with('one')
mock_rename.assert_called_once_with()
@mock.patch('paunch.runner.DockerRunner', autospec=True)
def test_delete_updated_update_image(self, runner):
mock_names = mock.MagicMock()
mock_names.return_value = [['one']]
runner.container_names = mock_names
mock_inspect = mock.MagicMock()
mock_inspect.side_effect = [
{
"Id": ("d038dccebdb0996ed36ab4ff06e7c424b3816d67664aa11e00642"
"be5e00cec55"),
"Config": {
"Labels": {
"config_data": """{
\"start_order\": 0,
\"image": \"centos:7\"
}"""
},
"Image": "127.0.0.1:8787/centos:7"
},
"Image": "sha256:1"
},
"sha256:2"
]
runner.inspect = mock_inspect
mock_remove = mock.MagicMock()
runner.remove_container = mock_remove
mock_rename = mock.MagicMock()
runner.rename_containers = mock_rename
config = {
'one': {
'start_order': 0,
'image': 'centos:7',
}
}
self.builder = compose1.ComposeV1Builder(
'one', config, runner.return_value)
self.builder.runner = runner
self.builder.delete_missing_and_updated()
mock_names.assert_called_once_with('one')
calls = [
mock.call('one'),
mock.call('127.0.0.1:8787/centos:7',
'{{index .Id}}',
type='image')
]
mock_inspect.has_calls(calls)
mock_remove.assert_called_once_with('one')
mock_rename.assert_called_once_with()