OpenStack Compute (Nova) Client
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# Copyright 2010 Jacob Kaplan-Moss
# Copyright 2011 OpenStack Foundation
# Copyright 2011 Piston Cloud Computing, Inc.
# All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""
OpenStack Client interface. Handles the REST calls and responses.
"""
import copy
import functools
import hashlib
import logging
import pkgutil
import re
import socket
import warnings
from keystoneclient import adapter
from oslo_utils import importutils
from oslo_utils import netutils
import requests
from requests import adapters
try:
import json
except ImportError:
import simplejson as json
from six.moves.urllib import parse
from novaclient import exceptions
from novaclient.i18n import _, _LW
from novaclient import service_catalog
from novaclient import utils
# key is a deprecated version and value is an alternative version.
DEPRECATED_VERSIONS = {"1.1": "2"}
class TCPKeepAliveAdapter(adapters.HTTPAdapter):
"""The custom adapter used to set TCP Keep-Alive on all connections."""
def init_poolmanager(self, *args, **kwargs):
if requests.__version__ >= '2.4.1':
kwargs.setdefault('socket_options', [
(socket.IPPROTO_TCP, socket.TCP_NODELAY, 1),
(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_KEEPALIVE, 1),
])
super(TCPKeepAliveAdapter, self).init_poolmanager(*args, **kwargs)
class _ClientConnectionPool(object):
def __init__(self):
self._adapters = {}
def get(self, url):
"""
Store and reuse HTTP adapters per Service URL.
"""
if url not in self._adapters:
self._adapters[url] = TCPKeepAliveAdapter()
return self._adapters[url]
class SessionClient(adapter.LegacyJsonAdapter):
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
self.times = []
self.timings = kwargs.pop('timings', False)
super(SessionClient, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
def request(self, url, method, **kwargs):
# NOTE(jamielennox): The standard call raises errors from
# keystoneclient, where we need to raise the novaclient errors.
raise_exc = kwargs.pop('raise_exc', True)
with utils.record_time(self.times, self.timings, method, url):
resp, body = super(SessionClient, self).request(url,
method,
raise_exc=False,
**kwargs)
if raise_exc and resp.status_code >= 400:
raise exceptions.from_response(resp, body, url, method)
return resp, body
def get_timings(self):
return self.times
def reset_timings(self):
self.times = []
def _original_only(f):
"""Indicates and enforces that this function can only be used if we are
using the original HTTPClient object.
We use this to specify that if you use the newer Session HTTP client then
you are aware that the way you use your client has been updated and certain
functions are no longer allowed to be used.
"""
@functools.wraps(f)
def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
if isinstance(self.client, SessionClient):
msg = ('This call is no longer available. The operation should '
'be performed on the session object instead.')
raise exceptions.InvalidUsage(msg)
return f(self, *args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
class HTTPClient(object):
USER_AGENT = 'python-novaclient'
def __init__(self, user, password, projectid=None, auth_url=None,
insecure=False, timeout=None, proxy_tenant_id=None,
proxy_token=None, region_name=None,
endpoint_type='publicURL', service_type=None,
service_name=None, volume_service_name=None,
timings=False, bypass_url=None,
os_cache=False, no_cache=True,
http_log_debug=False, auth_system='keystone',
auth_plugin=None, auth_token=None,
cacert=None, tenant_id=None, user_id=None,
connection_pool=False):
self.user = user
self.user_id = user_id
self.password = password
self.projectid = projectid
self.tenant_id = tenant_id
self._connection_pool = (_ClientConnectionPool()
if connection_pool else None)
# This will be called by #_get_password if self.password is None.
# EG if a password can only be obtained by prompting the user, but a
# token is available, you don't want to prompt until the token has
# been proven invalid
self.password_func = None
if auth_system and auth_system != 'keystone' and not auth_plugin:
raise exceptions.AuthSystemNotFound(auth_system)
if not auth_url and auth_system and auth_system != 'keystone':
auth_url = auth_plugin.get_auth_url()
if not auth_url:
raise exceptions.EndpointNotFound()
self.auth_url = auth_url.rstrip('/') if auth_url else auth_url
self.version = 'v1.1'
self.region_name = region_name
self.endpoint_type = endpoint_type
self.service_type = service_type
self.service_name = service_name
self.volume_service_name = volume_service_name
self.timings = timings
self.bypass_url = bypass_url.rstrip('/') if bypass_url else bypass_url
self.os_cache = os_cache or not no_cache
self.http_log_debug = http_log_debug
if timeout is not None:
self.timeout = float(timeout)
else:
self.timeout = None
self.times = [] # [("item", starttime, endtime), ...]
self.management_url = self.bypass_url or None
self.auth_token = auth_token
self.proxy_token = proxy_token
self.proxy_tenant_id = proxy_tenant_id
self.keyring_saver = None
self.keyring_saved = False
if insecure:
self.verify_cert = False
else:
if cacert:
self.verify_cert = cacert
else:
self.verify_cert = True
self.auth_system = auth_system
self.auth_plugin = auth_plugin
self._session = None
self._current_url = None
self._logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)
if self.http_log_debug and not self._logger.handlers:
# Logging level is already set on the root logger
ch = logging.StreamHandler()
self._logger.addHandler(ch)
self._logger.propagate = False
if hasattr(requests, 'logging'):
rql = requests.logging.getLogger(requests.__name__)
rql.addHandler(ch)
# Since we have already setup the root logger on debug, we
# have to set it up here on WARNING (its original level)
# otherwise we will get all the requests logging messages
rql.setLevel(logging.WARNING)
# NOTE(melwitt): Service catalog is only set if bypass_url isn't
# used. Otherwise, we can cache using services_url.
self.service_catalog = None
self.services_url = {}
def use_token_cache(self, use_it):
self.os_cache = use_it
def unauthenticate(self):
"""Forget all of our authentication information."""
self.management_url = None
self.auth_token = None
def set_management_url(self, url):
self.management_url = url
def get_timings(self):
return self.times
def reset_timings(self):
self.times = []
def _redact(self, target, path, text=None):
"""Replace the value of a key in `target`.
The key can be at the top level by specifying a list with a single
key as the path. Nested dictionaries are also supported by passing a
list of keys to be navigated to find the one that should be replaced.
In this case the last one is the one that will be replaced.
:param dict target: the dictionary that may have a key to be redacted;
modified in place
:param list path: a list representing the nested structure in `target`
that should be redacted; modified in place
:param string text: optional text to use as a replacement for the
redacted key. if text is not specified, the
default text will be sha1 hash of the value being
redacted
"""
key = path.pop()
# move to the most nested dict
for p in path:
try:
target = target[p]
except KeyError:
return
if key in target:
if text:
target[key] = text
else:
# because in python3 byte string handling is ... ug
value = target[key].encode('utf-8')
sha1sum = hashlib.sha1(value)
target[key] = "{SHA1}%s" % sha1sum.hexdigest()
def http_log_req(self, method, url, kwargs):
if not self.http_log_debug:
return
string_parts = ['curl -g -i']
if not kwargs.get('verify', True):
string_parts.append(' --insecure')
string_parts.append(" '%s'" % url)
string_parts.append(' -X %s' % method)
headers = copy.deepcopy(kwargs['headers'])
self._redact(headers, ['X-Auth-Token'])
# because dict ordering changes from 2 to 3
keys = sorted(headers.keys())
for name in keys:
value = headers[name]
header = ' -H "%s: %s"' % (name, value)
string_parts.append(header)
if 'data' in kwargs:
data = json.loads(kwargs['data'])
self._redact(data, ['auth', 'passwordCredentials', 'password'])
string_parts.append(" -d '%s'" % json.dumps(data))
self._logger.debug("REQ: %s" % "".join(string_parts))
def http_log_resp(self, resp):
if not self.http_log_debug:
return
if resp.text and resp.status_code != 400:
try:
body = json.loads(resp.text)
self._redact(body, ['access', 'token', 'id'])
except ValueError:
body = None
else:
body = None
self._logger.debug("RESP: [%(status)s] %(headers)s\nRESP BODY: "
"%(text)s\n", {'status': resp.status_code,
'headers': resp.headers,
'text': json.dumps(body)})
def open_session(self):
if not self._connection_pool:
self._session = requests.Session()
def close_session(self):
if self._session and not self._connection_pool:
self._session.close()
self._session = None
def _get_session(self, url):
if self._connection_pool:
magic_tuple = parse.urlsplit(url)
scheme, netloc, path, query, frag = magic_tuple
service_url = '%s://%s' % (scheme, netloc)
if self._current_url != service_url:
# Invalidate Session object in case the url is somehow changed
if self._session:
self._session.close()
self._current_url = service_url
self._logger.debug(
"New session created for: (%s)" % service_url)
self._session = requests.Session()
self._session.mount(service_url,
self._connection_pool.get(service_url))
return self._session
elif self._session:
return self._session
def request(self, url, method, **kwargs):
kwargs.setdefault('headers', kwargs.get('headers', {}))
kwargs['headers']['User-Agent'] = self.USER_AGENT
kwargs['headers']['Accept'] = 'application/json'
if 'body' in kwargs:
kwargs['headers']['Content-Type'] = 'application/json'
kwargs['data'] = json.dumps(kwargs['body'])
del kwargs['body']
if self.timeout is not None:
kwargs.setdefault('timeout', self.timeout)
kwargs['verify'] = self.verify_cert
self.http_log_req(method, url, kwargs)
request_func = requests.request
session = self._get_session(url)
if session:
request_func = session.request
resp = request_func(
method,
url,
**kwargs)
self.http_log_resp(resp)
if resp.text:
# TODO(dtroyer): verify the note below in a requests context
# NOTE(alaski): Because force_exceptions_to_status_code=True
# httplib2 returns a connection refused event as a 400 response.
# To determine if it is a bad request or refused connection we need
# to check the body. httplib2 tests check for 'Connection refused'
# or 'actively refused' in the body, so that's what we'll do.
if resp.status_code == 400:
if ('Connection refused' in resp.text or
'actively refused' in resp.text):
raise exceptions.ConnectionRefused(resp.text)
try:
body = json.loads(resp.text)
except ValueError:
body = None
else:
body = None
if resp.status_code >= 400:
raise exceptions.from_response(resp, body, url, method)
return resp, body
def _time_request(self, url, method, **kwargs):
with utils.record_time(self.times, self.timings, method, url):
resp, body = self.request(url, method, **kwargs)
return resp, body
def _cs_request(self, url, method, **kwargs):
if not self.management_url:
self.authenticate()
if url is None:
# To get API version information, it is necessary to GET
# a nova endpoint directly without "v2/<tenant-id>".
magic_tuple = parse.urlsplit(self.management_url)
scheme, netloc, path, query, frag = magic_tuple
path = re.sub(r'v[1-9]/[a-z0-9]+$', '', path)
url = parse.urlunsplit((scheme, netloc, path, None, None))
else:
if self.service_catalog:
url = self.get_service_url(self.service_type) + url
else:
# NOTE(melwitt): The service catalog is not available
# when bypass_url is used.
url = self.management_url + url
# Perform the request once. If we get a 401 back then it
# might be because the auth token expired, so try to
# re-authenticate and try again. If it still fails, bail.
try:
kwargs.setdefault('headers', {})['X-Auth-Token'] = self.auth_token
if self.projectid:
kwargs['headers']['X-Auth-Project-Id'] = self.projectid
resp, body = self._time_request(url, method, **kwargs)
return resp, body
except exceptions.Unauthorized as e:
try:
# first discard auth token, to avoid the possibly expired
# token being re-used in the re-authentication attempt
self.unauthenticate()
# overwrite bad token
self.keyring_saved = False
self.authenticate()
kwargs['headers']['X-Auth-Token'] = self.auth_token
resp, body = self._time_request(url, method, **kwargs)
return resp, body
except exceptions.Unauthorized:
raise e
def _get_password(self):
if not self.password and self.password_func:
self.password = self.password_func()
return self.password
def get(self, url, **kwargs):
return self._cs_request(url, 'GET', **kwargs)
def post(self, url, **kwargs):
return self._cs_request(url, 'POST', **kwargs)
def put(self, url, **kwargs):
return self._cs_request(url, 'PUT', **kwargs)
def delete(self, url, **kwargs):
return self._cs_request(url, 'DELETE', **kwargs)
def get_service_url(self, service_type):
if service_type not in self.services_url:
url = self.service_catalog.url_for(
attr='region',
filter_value=self.region_name,
endpoint_type=self.endpoint_type,
service_type=service_type,
service_name=self.service_name,
volume_service_name=self.volume_service_name,)
url = url.rstrip('/')
self.services_url[service_type] = url
return self.services_url[service_type]
def _extract_service_catalog(self, url, resp, body, extract_token=True):
"""See what the auth service told us and process the response.
We may get redirected to another site, fail or actually get
back a service catalog with a token and our endpoints.
"""
# content must always present
if resp.status_code == 200 or resp.status_code == 201:
try:
self.auth_url = url
self.service_catalog = \
service_catalog.ServiceCatalog(body)
if extract_token:
self.auth_token = self.service_catalog.get_token()
self.tenant_id = self.service_catalog.get_tenant_id()
self.management_url = self.get_service_url(self.service_type)
return None
except exceptions.AmbiguousEndpoints:
print(_("Found more than one valid endpoint. Use a more "
"restrictive filter"))
raise
except KeyError:
raise exceptions.AuthorizationFailure()
except exceptions.EndpointNotFound:
print(_("Could not find any suitable endpoint. Correct "
"region?"))
raise
elif resp.status_code == 305:
return resp.headers['location']
else:
raise exceptions.from_response(resp, body, url)
def _fetch_endpoints_from_auth(self, url):
"""We have a token, but don't know the final endpoint for
the region. We have to go back to the auth service and
ask again. This request requires an admin-level token
to work. The proxy token supplied could be from a low-level enduser.
We can't get this from the keystone service endpoint, we have to use
the admin endpoint.
This will overwrite our admin token with the user token.
"""
# GET ...:5001/v2.0/tokens/#####/endpoints
url = '/'.join([url, 'tokens', '%s?belongsTo=%s'
% (self.proxy_token, self.proxy_tenant_id)])
self._logger.debug("Using Endpoint URL: %s" % url)
resp, body = self._time_request(
url, "GET", headers={'X-Auth-Token': self.auth_token})
return self._extract_service_catalog(url, resp, body,
extract_token=False)
def authenticate(self):
if not self.auth_url:
msg = _("Authentication requires 'auth_url', which should be "
"specified in '%s'") % self.__class__.__name__
raise exceptions.AuthorizationFailure(msg)
magic_tuple = netutils.urlsplit(self.auth_url)
scheme, netloc, path, query, frag = magic_tuple
port = magic_tuple.port
if port is None:
port = 80
path_parts = path.split('/')
for part in path_parts:
if len(part) > 0 and part[0] == 'v':
self.version = part
break
if self.auth_token and self.management_url:
self._save_keys()
return
# TODO(sandy): Assume admin endpoint is 35357 for now.
# Ideally this is going to have to be provided by the service catalog.
new_netloc = netloc.replace(':%d' % port, ':%d' % (35357,))
admin_url = parse.urlunsplit(
(scheme, new_netloc, path, query, frag))
auth_url = self.auth_url
if self.version == "v2.0": # FIXME(chris): This should be better.
while auth_url:
if not self.auth_system or self.auth_system == 'keystone':
auth_url = self._v2_auth(auth_url)
else:
auth_url = self._plugin_auth(auth_url)
# Are we acting on behalf of another user via an
# existing token? If so, our actual endpoints may
# be different than that of the admin token.
if self.proxy_token:
if self.bypass_url:
self.set_management_url(self.bypass_url)
else:
self._fetch_endpoints_from_auth(admin_url)
# Since keystone no longer returns the user token
# with the endpoints any more, we need to replace
# our service account token with the user token.
self.auth_token = self.proxy_token
else:
try:
while auth_url:
auth_url = self._v1_auth(auth_url)
# In some configurations nova makes redirection to
# v2.0 keystone endpoint. Also, new location does not contain
# real endpoint, only hostname and port.
except exceptions.AuthorizationFailure:
if auth_url.find('v2.0') < 0:
auth_url = auth_url + '/v2.0'
self._v2_auth(auth_url)
if self.bypass_url:
self.set_management_url(self.bypass_url)
elif not self.management_url:
raise exceptions.Unauthorized('Nova Client')
self._save_keys()
def _save_keys(self):
# Store the token/mgmt url in the keyring for later requests.
if (self.keyring_saver and self.os_cache and not self.keyring_saved
and self.auth_token and self.management_url
and self.tenant_id):
self.keyring_saver.save(self.auth_token,
self.management_url,
self.tenant_id)
# Don't save it again
self.keyring_saved = True
def _v1_auth(self, url):
if self.proxy_token:
raise exceptions.NoTokenLookupException()
headers = {'X-Auth-User': self.user,
'X-Auth-Key': self._get_password()}
if self.projectid:
headers['X-Auth-Project-Id'] = self.projectid
resp, body = self._time_request(url, 'GET', headers=headers)
if resp.status_code in (200, 204): # in some cases we get No Content
try:
mgmt_header = 'x-server-management-url'
self.management_url = resp.headers[mgmt_header].rstrip('/')
self.auth_token = resp.headers['x-auth-token']
self.auth_url = url
except (KeyError, TypeError):
raise exceptions.AuthorizationFailure()
elif resp.status_code == 305:
return resp.headers['location']
else:
raise exceptions.from_response(resp, body, url)
def _plugin_auth(self, auth_url):
return self.auth_plugin.authenticate(self, auth_url)
def _v2_auth(self, url):
"""Authenticate against a v2.0 auth service."""
if self.auth_token:
body = {"auth": {
"token": {"id": self.auth_token}}}
elif self.user_id:
body = {"auth": {
"passwordCredentials": {"userId": self.user_id,
"password": self._get_password()}}}
else:
body = {"auth": {
"passwordCredentials": {"username": self.user,
"password": self._get_password()}}}
if self.tenant_id:
body['auth']['tenantId'] = self.tenant_id
elif self.projectid:
body['auth']['tenantName'] = self.projectid
return self._authenticate(url, body)
def _authenticate(self, url, body, **kwargs):
"""Authenticate and extract the service catalog."""
method = "POST"
token_url = url + "/tokens"
# Make sure we follow redirects when trying to reach Keystone
resp, respbody = self._time_request(
token_url,
method,
body=body,
allow_redirects=True,
**kwargs)
return self._extract_service_catalog(url, resp, respbody)
def _construct_http_client(username=None, password=None, project_id=None,
auth_url=None, insecure=False, timeout=None,
proxy_tenant_id=None, proxy_token=None,
region_name=None, endpoint_type='publicURL',
extensions=None, service_type='compute',
service_name=None, volume_service_name=None,
timings=False, bypass_url=None, os_cache=False,
no_cache=True, http_log_debug=False,
auth_system='keystone', auth_plugin=None,
auth_token=None, cacert=None, tenant_id=None,
user_id=None, connection_pool=False, session=None,
auth=None, user_agent='python-novaclient',
interface=None, **kwargs):
if session:
return SessionClient(session=session,
auth=auth,
interface=interface or endpoint_type,
service_type=service_type,
region_name=region_name,
service_name=service_name,
user_agent=user_agent,
timings=timings,
**kwargs)
else:
# FIXME(jamielennox): username and password are now optional. Need
# to test that they were provided in this mode.
return HTTPClient(username,
password,
user_id=user_id,
projectid=project_id,
tenant_id=tenant_id,
auth_url=auth_url,
auth_token=auth_token,
insecure=insecure,
timeout=timeout,
auth_system=auth_system,
auth_plugin=auth_plugin,
proxy_token=proxy_token,
proxy_tenant_id=proxy_tenant_id,
region_name=region_name,
endpoint_type=endpoint_type,
service_type=service_type,
service_name=service_name,
volume_service_name=volume_service_name,
timings=timings,
bypass_url=bypass_url,
os_cache=os_cache,
http_log_debug=http_log_debug,
cacert=cacert,
connection_pool=connection_pool)
def get_client_class(version):
version = str(version)
if version in DEPRECATED_VERSIONS:
warnings.warn(_LW(
"Version %(deprecated_version)s is deprecated, using "
"alternative version %(alternative)s instead.") %
{"deprecated_version": version,
"alternative": DEPRECATED_VERSIONS[version]})
version = DEPRECATED_VERSIONS[version]
try:
return importutils.import_class(
"novaclient.v%s.client.Client" % version)
except ImportError:
# NOTE(andreykurilin): available clients version should not be
# hardcoded, so let's discover them.
matcher = re.compile(r"v[0-9_]*$")
submodules = pkgutil.iter_modules(['novaclient'])
available_versions = [
name[1:].replace("_", ".") for loader, name, ispkg in submodules
if matcher.search(name)]
msg = _("Invalid client version '%(version)s'. must be one of: "
"%(keys)s") % {'version': version,
'keys': ', '.join(available_versions)}
raise exceptions.UnsupportedVersion(msg)
def Client(version, *args, **kwargs):
client_class = get_client_class(version)
return client_class(*args, **kwargs)