OpenStack Storage (Swift)
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# Copyright (c) 2010-2012 OpenStack Foundation
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
# implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
"""
TempURL Middleware
Allows the creation of URLs to provide temporary access to objects.
For example, a website may wish to provide a link to download a large
object in Swift, but the Swift account has no public access. The
website can generate a URL that will provide GET access for a limited
time to the resource. When the web browser user clicks on the link,
the browser will download the object directly from Swift, obviating
the need for the website to act as a proxy for the request.
If the user were to share the link with all his friends, or
accidentally post it on a forum, etc. the direct access would be
limited to the expiration time set when the website created the link.
To create such temporary URLs, first an X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key
header must be set on the Swift account. Then, an HMAC-SHA1 (RFC 2104)
signature is generated using the HTTP method to allow (GET or PUT),
the Unix timestamp the access should be allowed until, the full path
to the object, and the key set on the account.
For example, here is code generating the signature for a GET for 60
seconds on /v1/AUTH_account/container/object::
import hmac
from hashlib import sha1
from time import time
method = 'GET'
expires = int(time() + 60)
path = '/v1/AUTH_account/container/object'
key = 'mykey'
hmac_body = '%s\\n%s\\n%s' % (method, expires, path)
sig = hmac.new(key, hmac_body, sha1).hexdigest()
Be certain to use the full path, from the /v1/ onward.
Let's say the sig ends up equaling
da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709 and expires ends up
1323479485. Then, for example, the website could provide a link to::
https://swift-cluster.example.com/v1/AUTH_account/container/object?
temp_url_sig=da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709&
temp_url_expires=1323479485
Any alteration of the resource path or query arguments would result
in 401 Unauthorized. Similary, a PUT where GET was the allowed method
would 401. HEAD is allowed if GET or PUT is allowed.
Using this in combination with browser form post translation
middleware could also allow direct-from-browser uploads to specific
locations in Swift.
TempURL supports up to two keys, specified by X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key and
X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key-2. Signatures are checked against both keys, if
present. This is to allow for key rotation without invalidating all existing
temporary URLs.
With GET TempURLs, a Content-Disposition header will be set on the
response so that browsers will interpret this as a file attachment to
be saved. The filename chosen is based on the object name, but you
can override this with a filename query parameter. Modifying the
above example::
https://swift-cluster.example.com/v1/AUTH_account/container/object?
temp_url_sig=da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709&
temp_url_expires=1323479485&filename=My+Test+File.pdf
"""
__all__ = ['TempURL', 'filter_factory',
'DEFAULT_INCOMING_REMOVE_HEADERS',
'DEFAULT_INCOMING_ALLOW_HEADERS',
'DEFAULT_OUTGOING_REMOVE_HEADERS',
'DEFAULT_OUTGOING_ALLOW_HEADERS']
import hmac
from hashlib import sha1
from os.path import basename
from time import time
from urllib import urlencode
from urlparse import parse_qs
from swift.proxy.controllers.base import get_account_info
from swift.common.swob import HeaderKeyDict
from swift.common.utils import split_path, streq_const_time
#: Default headers to remove from incoming requests. Simply a whitespace
#: delimited list of header names and names can optionally end with '*' to
#: indicate a prefix match. DEFAULT_INCOMING_ALLOW_HEADERS is a list of
#: exceptions to these removals.
DEFAULT_INCOMING_REMOVE_HEADERS = 'x-timestamp'
#: Default headers as exceptions to DEFAULT_INCOMING_REMOVE_HEADERS. Simply a
#: whitespace delimited list of header names and names can optionally end with
#: '*' to indicate a prefix match.
DEFAULT_INCOMING_ALLOW_HEADERS = ''
#: Default headers to remove from outgoing responses. Simply a whitespace
#: delimited list of header names and names can optionally end with '*' to
#: indicate a prefix match. DEFAULT_OUTGOING_ALLOW_HEADERS is a list of
#: exceptions to these removals.
DEFAULT_OUTGOING_REMOVE_HEADERS = 'x-object-meta-*'
#: Default headers as exceptions to DEFAULT_OUTGOING_REMOVE_HEADERS. Simply a
#: whitespace delimited list of header names and names can optionally end with
#: '*' to indicate a prefix match.
DEFAULT_OUTGOING_ALLOW_HEADERS = 'x-object-meta-public-*'
def get_tempurl_keys_from_metadata(meta):
"""
Extracts the tempurl keys from metadata.
:param meta: account metadata
:returns: list of keys found (possibly empty if no keys set)
Example:
meta = get_account_info(...)['meta']
keys = get_tempurl_keys_from_metadata(meta)
"""
return [value for key, value in meta.iteritems()
if key.lower() in ('temp-url-key', 'temp-url-key-2')]
class TempURL(object):
"""
WSGI Middleware to grant temporary URLs specific access to Swift
resources. See the overview for more information.
This middleware understands the following configuration settings::
incoming_remove_headers
The headers to remove from incoming requests. Simply a
whitespace delimited list of header names and names can
optionally end with '*' to indicate a prefix match.
incoming_allow_headers is a list of exceptions to these
removals.
Default: x-timestamp
incoming_allow_headers
The headers allowed as exceptions to
incoming_remove_headers. Simply a whitespace delimited
list of header names and names can optionally end with
'*' to indicate a prefix match.
Default: None
outgoing_remove_headers
The headers to remove from outgoing responses. Simply a
whitespace delimited list of header names and names can
optionally end with '*' to indicate a prefix match.
outgoing_allow_headers is a list of exceptions to these
removals.
Default: x-object-meta-*
outgoing_allow_headers
The headers allowed as exceptions to
outgoing_remove_headers. Simply a whitespace delimited
list of header names and names can optionally end with
'*' to indicate a prefix match.
Default: x-object-meta-public-*
The proxy logs created for any subrequests made will have swift.source set
to "FP".
:param app: The next WSGI filter or app in the paste.deploy
chain.
:param conf: The configuration dict for the middleware.
"""
def __init__(self, app, conf):
#: The next WSGI application/filter in the paste.deploy pipeline.
self.app = app
#: The filter configuration dict.
self.conf = conf
#: The methods allowed with Temp URLs.
self.methods = conf.get('methods', 'GET HEAD PUT').split()
headers = DEFAULT_INCOMING_REMOVE_HEADERS
if 'incoming_remove_headers' in conf:
headers = conf['incoming_remove_headers']
headers = \
['HTTP_' + h.upper().replace('-', '_') for h in headers.split()]
#: Headers to remove from incoming requests. Uppercase WSGI env style,
#: like `HTTP_X_PRIVATE`.
self.incoming_remove_headers = [h for h in headers if h[-1] != '*']
#: Header with match prefixes to remove from incoming requests.
#: Uppercase WSGI env style, like `HTTP_X_SENSITIVE_*`.
self.incoming_remove_headers_startswith = \
[h[:-1] for h in headers if h[-1] == '*']
headers = DEFAULT_INCOMING_ALLOW_HEADERS
if 'incoming_allow_headers' in conf:
headers = conf['incoming_allow_headers']
headers = \
['HTTP_' + h.upper().replace('-', '_') for h in headers.split()]
#: Headers to allow in incoming requests. Uppercase WSGI env style,
#: like `HTTP_X_MATCHES_REMOVE_PREFIX_BUT_OKAY`.
self.incoming_allow_headers = [h for h in headers if h[-1] != '*']
#: Header with match prefixes to allow in incoming requests. Uppercase
#: WSGI env style, like `HTTP_X_MATCHES_REMOVE_PREFIX_BUT_OKAY_*`.
self.incoming_allow_headers_startswith = \
[h[:-1] for h in headers if h[-1] == '*']
headers = DEFAULT_OUTGOING_REMOVE_HEADERS
if 'outgoing_remove_headers' in conf:
headers = conf['outgoing_remove_headers']
headers = [h.title() for h in headers.split()]
#: Headers to remove from outgoing responses. Lowercase, like
#: `x-account-meta-temp-url-key`.
self.outgoing_remove_headers = [h for h in headers if h[-1] != '*']
#: Header with match prefixes to remove from outgoing responses.
#: Lowercase, like `x-account-meta-private-*`.
self.outgoing_remove_headers_startswith = \
[h[:-1] for h in headers if h[-1] == '*']
headers = DEFAULT_OUTGOING_ALLOW_HEADERS
if 'outgoing_allow_headers' in conf:
headers = conf['outgoing_allow_headers']
headers = [h.title() for h in headers.split()]
#: Headers to allow in outgoing responses. Lowercase, like
#: `x-matches-remove-prefix-but-okay`.
self.outgoing_allow_headers = [h for h in headers if h[-1] != '*']
#: Header with match prefixes to allow in outgoing responses.
#: Lowercase, like `x-matches-remove-prefix-but-okay-*`.
self.outgoing_allow_headers_startswith = \
[h[:-1] for h in headers if h[-1] == '*']
#: HTTP user agent to use for subrequests.
self.agent = '%(orig)s TempURL'
def __call__(self, env, start_response):
"""
Main hook into the WSGI paste.deploy filter/app pipeline.
:param env: The WSGI environment dict.
:param start_response: The WSGI start_response hook.
:returns: Response as per WSGI.
"""
if env['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'OPTIONS':
return self.app(env, start_response)
temp_url_sig, temp_url_expires, filename = self._get_temp_url_info(env)
if temp_url_sig is None and temp_url_expires is None:
return self.app(env, start_response)
if not temp_url_sig or not temp_url_expires:
return self._invalid(env, start_response)
account = self._get_account(env)
if not account:
return self._invalid(env, start_response)
keys = self._get_keys(env, account)
if not keys:
return self._invalid(env, start_response)
if env['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'HEAD':
hmac_vals = (self._get_hmacs(env, temp_url_expires, keys,
request_method='GET') +
self._get_hmacs(env, temp_url_expires, keys,
request_method='PUT'))
else:
hmac_vals = self._get_hmacs(env, temp_url_expires, keys)
# While it's true that any() will short-circuit, this doesn't affect
# the timing-attack resistance since the only way this will
# short-circuit is when a valid signature is passed in.
is_valid_hmac = any(streq_const_time(temp_url_sig, h)
for h in hmac_vals)
if not is_valid_hmac:
return self._invalid(env, start_response)
self._clean_incoming_headers(env)
env['swift.authorize'] = lambda req: None
env['swift.authorize_override'] = True
env['REMOTE_USER'] = '.wsgi.tempurl'
qs = {'temp_url_sig': temp_url_sig,
'temp_url_expires': temp_url_expires}
if filename:
qs['filename'] = filename
env['QUERY_STRING'] = urlencode(qs)
def _start_response(status, headers, exc_info=None):
headers = self._clean_outgoing_headers(headers)
if env['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'GET' and status[0] == '2':
already = False
for h, v in headers:
if h.lower() == 'content-disposition':
already = True
break
if already and filename:
headers = list((h, v) for h, v in headers
if h.lower() != 'content-disposition')
already = False
if not already:
name = filename or basename(env['PATH_INFO'].rstrip('/'))
headers.append((
'Content-Disposition',
'attachment; filename="%s"' % (
name.replace('"', '\\"'))))
return start_response(status, headers, exc_info)
return self.app(env, _start_response)
def _get_account(self, env):
"""
Returns just the account for the request, if it's an object
request and one of the configured methods; otherwise, None is
returned.
:param env: The WSGI environment for the request.
:returns: Account str or None.
"""
if env['REQUEST_METHOD'] in self.methods:
try:
ver, acc, cont, obj = split_path(env['PATH_INFO'], 4, 4, True)
except ValueError:
return None
if ver == 'v1' and obj.strip('/'):
return acc
def _get_temp_url_info(self, env):
"""
Returns the provided temporary URL parameters (sig, expires),
if given and syntactically valid. Either sig or expires could
be None if not provided. If provided, expires is also
converted to an int if possible or 0 if not, and checked for
expiration (returns 0 if expired).
:param env: The WSGI environment for the request.
:returns: (sig, expires) as described above.
"""
temp_url_sig = temp_url_expires = filename = None
qs = parse_qs(env.get('QUERY_STRING', ''))
if 'temp_url_sig' in qs:
temp_url_sig = qs['temp_url_sig'][0]
if 'temp_url_expires' in qs:
try:
temp_url_expires = int(qs['temp_url_expires'][0])
except ValueError:
temp_url_expires = 0
if temp_url_expires < time():
temp_url_expires = 0
if 'filename' in qs:
filename = qs['filename'][0]
return temp_url_sig, temp_url_expires, filename
def _get_keys(self, env, account):
"""
Returns the X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key[-2] header values for the
account, or an empty list if none is set.
Returns 0, 1, or 2 elements depending on how many keys are set
in the account's metadata.
:param env: The WSGI environment for the request.
:param account: Account str.
:returns: [X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key str value if set,
X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key-2 str value if set]
"""
account_info = get_account_info(env, self.app, swift_source='TU')
return get_tempurl_keys_from_metadata(account_info['meta'])
def _get_hmacs(self, env, expires, keys, request_method=None):
"""
:param env: The WSGI environment for the request.
:param expires: Unix timestamp as an int for when the URL
expires.
:param keys: Key strings, from the X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key[-2] of
the account.
"""
return [self._get_hmac(env, expires, key, request_method)
for key in keys]
def _get_hmac(self, env, expires, key, request_method=None):
"""
Returns the hexdigest string of the HMAC-SHA1 (RFC 2104) for
the request.
:param env: The WSGI environment for the request.
:param expires: Unix timestamp as an int for when the URL
expires.
:param key: Key str, from the X-Account-Meta-Temp-URL-Key of
the account.
:param request_method: Optional override of the request in
the WSGI env. For example, if a HEAD
does not match, you may wish to
override with GET to still allow the
HEAD.
:returns: hexdigest str of the HMAC-SHA1 for the request.
"""
if not request_method:
request_method = env['REQUEST_METHOD']
return hmac.new(
key, '%s\n%s\n%s' % (request_method, expires,
env['PATH_INFO']), sha1).hexdigest()
def _invalid(self, env, start_response):
"""
Performs the necessary steps to indicate a WSGI 401
Unauthorized response to the request.
:param env: The WSGI environment for the request.
:param start_response: The WSGI start_response hook.
:returns: 401 response as per WSGI.
"""
body = '401 Unauthorized: Temp URL invalid\n'
start_response('401 Unauthorized',
[('Content-Type', 'text/plain'),
('Content-Length', str(len(body)))])
if env['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'HEAD':
return []
return [body]
def _clean_incoming_headers(self, env):
"""
Removes any headers from the WSGI environment as per the
middleware configuration for incoming requests.
:param env: The WSGI environment for the request.
"""
for h in env.keys():
remove = h in self.incoming_remove_headers
if not remove:
for p in self.incoming_remove_headers_startswith:
if h.startswith(p):
remove = True
break
if remove:
if h in self.incoming_allow_headers:
remove = False
if remove:
for p in self.incoming_allow_headers_startswith:
if h.startswith(p):
remove = False
break
if remove:
del env[h]
def _clean_outgoing_headers(self, headers):
"""
Removes any headers as per the middleware configuration for
outgoing responses.
:param headers: A WSGI start_response style list of headers,
[('header1', 'value), ('header2', 'value),
...]
:returns: The same headers list, but with some headers
removed as per the middlware configuration for
outgoing responses.
"""
headers = HeaderKeyDict(headers)
for h in headers.keys():
remove = h in self.outgoing_remove_headers
if not remove:
for p in self.outgoing_remove_headers_startswith:
if h.startswith(p):
remove = True
break
if remove:
if h in self.outgoing_allow_headers:
remove = False
if remove:
for p in self.outgoing_allow_headers_startswith:
if h.startswith(p):
remove = False
break
if remove:
del headers[h]
return headers.items()
def filter_factory(global_conf, **local_conf):
"""Returns the WSGI filter for use with paste.deploy."""
conf = global_conf.copy()
conf.update(local_conf)
return lambda app: TempURL(app, conf)