Suite of the Docker and Kubernetes applications
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README.rst

Murano-deployed Kubernetes Cluster application

The Packages in this folder are required to deploy both Google Kubernetes and the applications that run on top of it. The contents of each folder need to be zipped and uploaded to the Murano Catalog.

Additionally it is required to build a proper image for Kubernetes. This can be done using diskimage-builder and DIB elements. The image has to be named debian8-x64-kubernetes.qcow2

Overview of Kubernetes

Kubernetes is an open-source platform for automating deployment, scaling, and operations of application containers across clusters of hosts.

For a more in-depth review of Kubernetes please refer to the official documentation.

How Murano installs/upgrades a Kubernetes Cluster

Installation

Minimum requirements for Openstack in order to deploy Kubernetes cluster with Murano:

  • Openstack configured with Murano and Heat Services
  • 3 instances of m1.medium flavor (required for Master Node, Kubernetes Node, Gateway Node)
  • 1 Floating IP for Gateway, in case required to expose applications outside
  • 2 Floating IPs for Master and Kubernetes Nodes to access kubectl CLI or troubleshooting Master and Kubernetes Nodes.

A Kubernetes cluster deployed by Murano provisions 3 types of VMs that can be observed in the Openstack Horizon Dashboard with this naming convention:

  • Single Master Node (murano-kube-1) - which represents the Kubernetes Control Plane and runs the API server, Scheduler and Controller Manager. In the current implementation of Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano, the Master Node is not running in HA mode. Additionally it is not possible to schedule containers on the Master node.
  • One or several Kubernetes Nodes (murano-kube-2..n) - Kubernetes worker nodes that are responsible for running actual containers. Each Kubernetes Node runs the Docker, kubelet and kube-proxy services.
  • One or several Gateway nodes (murano-gateway-1..n) - used as an interconnection between Kubernetes internal Networking and the OpenStack external network (Neutron-managed). The Gateway node provides the Kubernetes cluster with external endpoints and allows users and services to reach Kubernetes pods from the outside. Each gateway node runs confd and HAProxy services. When the end user deploys an application and exposes it via a service, confd automatically detects it and adds it to the haproxy configuration. HAProxy will expose the application via the floating IP of the Gateway node and required port. If the user choses multiple Gateways, the result will be several endpoints for the application, which can be registered in the physical load balancer or DNS.
  • ETCD - Kubernetes uses etcd for key value store as well as for cluster consensus between different software components. Additionally, if the Kubernetes cluster is configured to run Calico networking, etcd will be configured to support Calico configurations. In the current implementation of Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano, the etcd cluster is not running on dedicated nodes. Instead etcd is running on each node deployed by Murano. For example, if Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano is running in the minimum available configuration with 3 nodes: Master Node, Kubernetes Node and Gateway, then etcd will run as a 3 node cluster.

Upgrade

Upgrade of Kubernetes Cluster components: In current implementation of Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano, which uses binaries and hyperkube, we do not provide a scenario to upgrade Kubernetes Cluster from a previous version to a newer one. However, we are planning to introduce upgrade capability in the coming releases of Murano Kubernetes application, by introducing self-hosted architecture of the Kubernetes Cluster. This will allow to perform Rolling Update of Kubernetes Cluster itself to the new version.

Framework to Update Murano Kubernetes Application to the new version: Currently, Murano doesn't support versioning of application as well as not having a well-defined framework on how to perform an Upgrade of Murano Applications. This also affects the possibility to enable Kubernetes Upgrades via Murano. This is planned to be addressed in the coming release of Murano.

Rolling updates of application running inside of Kubernetes Cluster: The Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano supports rolling updates with the use of “Deployments” and “Replication Controllers (RC)” abstractions. Please refer to the Rolling updates section of the Kubernetes application for more details.

Features

Murano deployed Kubernetes Cluster supports following features:

  • Networking: Calico by default, Flannel optional
  • Container runtime: Docker
  • Rolling updates of the Kubernetes application
  • Publishing services: ClusterIP Type

Networking

Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano supports Calico networking by default. Calico provides a highly scalable networking and network policy solution for connecting Kubernetes pods based on the same IP networking principles as a layer 3 approach.

Calico Networking deployed by Murano as CNI plugin contains following components:

  • etcd - distributed key-value store, which ensures Calico can always build an accurate network, used primerly for data storage and communication
  • Felix, the Calico worker process, which primarily routes and provides desired connectivity to and from the workloads on host. As well as provides the interface to kernels for outgoing endpoint traffic
  • BIRD, BGP client that exchanges routing information between hosts
  • Confd, a templating process to auto-generate configuration for BIRD
  • calicoctl, the command line used to configure and start the Calico service

See Project Calico documentation for more information.

Support for Flannel is disabled by default, but can be enabled as an option. Flannel is simple overlay network that satisfies the Kubernetes requirements. See flannel documentation for more information.

Container runtime

A container runtime is responsible for pulling container images from a registry, unpacking the container and running the application. Kubernetes by default supports the Docker runtime. Recently in Kubernetes version 1.3 support for the rkt runtime has been added. More runtimes are planned to be added in the future. The Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano currently supports only the Docker runtime, but we planning to add rkt runtime in close future.

Rolling updates of the Kubernetes application

The Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano supports rolling updates with the use of “Deployments” and “Replication Controllers (RC)” abstractions. Rolling updates using Deployments is the recommended way to perform updates. Rolling update via Deployments provides following benefits over RC:

  • Declarative way to control how service updates are performed
  • Rollback to an earlier Deployment version
  • Pause and resume a Deployment.

To use Rolling updates via Deployments refer to the Kubernetes documentation.

NOTE: Currently all applications deployed from the Apps Catalog have been created as Replication Controllers (RC), so Rolling updates via Deployments are not available for those applications.

If an application running as a Replication Controllers (RC) requires an update, please refer to the Kubernetes documentation here.

Interacting with the Kubernetes Cluster deployed by Murano

There are several ways to create and manage applications on Kubernetes cluster:

Using the Murano Environments view in Horizon:

Users can perform the following actions:

  • Deploy/Destroy the Kubernetes Cluster
  • Perform Kubernetes Cluster related actions such as scale Nodes and Gateways.
  • Perform Kubernetes Pod related actions such as scale, recreate pods or restart Containers.
  • Deploy selected Application from the Apps Catalog via the Murano Dashboard.
  • Deploy any docker image from the Docker Hub using Docker Container apps from the Apps Catalog.

Using kubectl CLI:

You can also deploy and manage applications using the Kubernetes command-line tool - kubectl from your laptop or any local environment:

  • Download and install the kubectl executable based on OS of the choice.
  • Configure kubectl context on the local environments:
  • kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes --server=http://<kube1-floating_IP>:8080
  • kubectl config set-context kubelet-context --cluster=kubernetes --user=""
  • kubectl config use-context kubelet-context
  • Verify kubectl Configuration and Connection:
  • kubectl config view
  • kubectl get nodes

The resulting kubeconfig file will be stored in ~/.kube/config and can be sourced at any time afterwards.

Additionally, it is possible to access kubectl cli from Master Node (kube-1), where kubectl cli is installed and configured by default.

NOTE: If the application has been deployed using kubectl CLI, it will be automatically exposed outside based on the port information provided in service yaml file. However, you will need to manually update the OpenStack Security Groups configuration with the required port information in order to be able reach the application from the outside.

KubernetesCluster

This is the main application representing Kubernetes Cluster. It is responsible for deployment of the Kubernetes and its nodes.

The procedure is:

  1. Create VMs for all node types - 1 for Kubernetes API and requested number for worker and gateway nodes.
  2. Join them into etcd cluster. etcd is a distributed key-value storage used by the Kubernetes to store and synchronize cluster state.
  3. Setup Networking (Calico or Flannel) over etcd cluster. Networking uses etcd to track network and nodes.
  4. Configure required services on master node.
  5. Configure worker nodes. They will register themselves in master nodes using etcd.
  6. Setup HAProxy on each gateway node. Configure confd to watch etcd to register public ports in HAProxy config file. Each time new Kubernetes service is created it regenerates HAProxy config.

Internally KubernetesCluster contains separate classes for all node types. They all inherit from KubernetesNode that defines the common interface for all nodes. The deployment of each node is split into several methods: deployInstance -> setupEtcd -> setupNode -> removeFromCluster as described above.

KubernetesPod

KubernetesPod represents a single Kubernetes pod with its containers and associated volumes. KubernetesPod provides an implementation of DockerContainerHost interface defined in DockerInterfacesLibrary. Thus each pod can be used as a drop-in replacement for regular Docker host implementation (DockerStandaloneHost).

All pods must have a unique name within single KubernetesCluster (which is selected for each pod).

Thus KubernetesCluster is an aggregation of Docker hosts (pods) which also handles all inter-pod entities (services, endpoints).

KubernetesPod creates Replication Controllers rather than pods. Replication Controller with replica count equal to 1 will result in single pod being created while it is always possible to increase/decrease replica count after deployment. Replica count is specified using replicas input property.

Pods also may have labels to group them (for example into layers etc.)

Kubernetes actions

Both KubernetesCluster and KubernetesPod expose number of actions that can be used by both user (through the dashboard) and automation systems (through API) to perform actions on the deployed applications.

See http://docs.openstack.org/developer/murano/draft/appdev-guide/murano_pl.html#murano-actions and http://docs.openstack.org/developer/murano/specification/index.html#actions-api for more details on actions API.

KubernetesCluster provides the following actions:

  • `scaleNodesUp`: increase the number of worker nodes by 1.
  • `scaleNodesDown`: decrease the number of worker nodes by 1.
  • `scaleGatewaysUp`: increase the number of gateway nodes by 1.
  • `scaleGatewaysDown`: decrease the number of gateway nodes by 1.

KubernetesPod has the following actions:

  • `scalePodUp`: increase the number of pod replicas by 1.
  • `scalePodDown`: decrease the number of pod replicas by 1.
  • `recreatePod`: delete the pod and create the new one from scratch.
  • `restartContainers`: restart Docker containers belonging to the pod.

Applications documentation

Documentation for KubernetesCluster application classes

KubernetesCluster

Represents Kubernetes Cluster and is the main class responsible for deploying both Kubernetes and it's nodes.

isAvailable()

Return whether masterNode.isAvailable() or not.

deploy()

Deploy Kubernetes Cluster.

getIp()

Return IP of the masterNode.

createPod(definition, isNew)

Create new Kubernetes Pod. definition is a dict of parameters, defining the pod. isNew is a boolean parameter, telling if the pod should be created or updated.

createReplicationController(definition, isNew)

Create new Replication Controller. definition is a dict of parameters, definition of the pod. isNew is a boolean parameter, telling if the pod should be created or updated.

deleteReplicationController(id)

Calls kubectl delete replicationcontrollers with given id on master node.

deletePods(labels)

Accepts a dict of labels with string-keys and string-values, that would be passed to kubectl delete pod on master node.

createService(applicationName, applicationPorts, podId)
  • applicationName a string holding application's name.
  • applicationPorts list of instances of com.mirantis.docker.ApplicationPort class.
  • podId a string holding a name of the pod.

Check each port in applicationPorts and creates or updates it if the port differs from what it was before (or did not exist). Calls kubectl replace or kubectl create on master node.

deleteServices(applicationName, podId)
  • applicationName a string holding application's name,
  • podId a string holding a name of the pod.

Delete all of the services of a given pod, calling kubectl delete service for each one of them.

scaleRc(rcName, newSize)
  • rnName string holding the name of the RC
  • newSize integer holding the number of replicas.

Call kubectl scale rc on master node, setting number of replicas for a given RC.

scaleNodesUp()

Increase the number of nodes by one ($.nodeCount up to the len($.minionNodes)) and call .deploy(). Can be used as an Action.

scaleGatewaysUp()

Increase the number of gateways by one ($.gatewayCount up to the len($.gatewayNodes)) and call .deploy(). Can be used as an Action.

scaleNodesDown()

Decrease the number of nodes by one ($.nodeCount up to 1) and call .deploy(). Can be used as an Action.

scaleGatewaysUp()

Decrease the number of gateways by one ($.gatewayCount up to 1) and call .deploy(). Can be used as an Action.

restartContainers(podName)
  • podName string holding the name of the pod.

Call restartContainers($podName) on each Kubernetes node.

KubernetesNode

Base class for all Kubernetes nodes.

getIp(preferFloatingIp)

Return IP address of the instance. If preferFloatingIp is False (default) return first IP address found. Otherwise give preference to floating IP.

deployInstance()

Call .deploy() method of underlying instance.

KubernetesGatewayNode

Kubernetes Gateway Node. Extends KubernetesNode class. All methods in this class are idempotent. This is achieved by memoizing the fact that the function has been called.

deployInstance()

Deploy underlying instance.

setupEtcd()

Add current node to etcd config (by calling etcdctl member add) on master node and start etcd member service on underlying instance.

setupNode()

Set up the node, by first setting up Calico or Flannel and then setting up HAProxy load balancer on underlying instance.

removeFromCluster()

Remove current node from etcd cluster and call $.instance.releaseResources(). Also clear up memoized values for deployInstance, setupEtcd, setupNode, allowing you to call these functions again.

KubernetesMasterNode

Kubernetes Master Node. Extends KubernetesNode class. Most methods in this class are idempotent. This is achieved by memoizing the fact that the function has been called.

deployInstance()

Deploy underlying instance.

setupEtcd()

Set up etcd master node config and launch etcd service on master node.

setupNode()

Set up the node. This includes setting up Calico or Flannel for master and configuring and launching kube-apiserver, kube-scheduler and kube-controller-manager services on the underlying instance.

isAvailable()

Return whether underlying instance has been deployed.

KubernetesMinionNode

Kubernetes Minion Node. Extends KubernetesNode class. All methods in this class are idempotent. This is achieved by memoizing the fact that the function has been called.

deployInstance()

Deploy underlying instance.

setupEtcd()

Add current node to etcd config (by calling etcdctl member add) on master node and start etcd member service on underlying instance.

setupNode()

Set up the node, by first setting up Calico or Flannel and then joining the Kubernetes Nodes into the cluster. If dockerRegistry or dockerMirror are supplied for underlying cluster, those are appended to the list of docker parameters. If gcloudKey is supplied for underlying cluster, then current node attempts to login to google cloud registry. Afterwards restart docker and configure and launch kubelet and kube-proxy services

removeFromCluster()

Remove current node from etcd cluster and call $.instance.releaseResources(). Also clear up memoized values for deployInstance, setupEtcd, setupNode, allowing you to call these functions again.

restartContainers(podName)
  • podName string holding the name of the pod.

Filter docker containers on the node containing the specified podName in their names and call docker restart command on them.