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The keystone charm deploys Keystone, the core OpenStack service that provides API client authentication, service discovery, and distributed multi-tenant authorization. The charm works alongside other Juju-deployed OpenStack services.
This section covers common and/or important configuration options. See file
config.yaml for the full list of options, along with their descriptions and
default values. See the Juju documentation for details
on configuring applications.
openstack-origin option states the software sources. A common value is an
OpenStack UCA release (e.g. ‘cloud:bionic-ussuri’ or ‘cloud:focal-victoria’).
See Ubuntu Cloud Archive. The underlying host’s existing apt
sources will be used if this option is not specified (this behaviour can be
explicitly chosen by using the value of ‘distro’).
Keystone is often containerised. Here a single unit is deployed to a new container on machine ‘1’:
juju deploy --to lxd:1 keystone
Now connect the keystone application to an existing cloud database. The database application is determined by the series. Prior to focal percona-cluster is used, otherwise it is mysql-innodb-cluster. In the example deployment below mysql-innodb-cluster has been chosen.
juju deploy mysql-router keystone-mysql-router juju add-relation keystone-mysql-router:db-router mysql-innodb-cluster:db-router juju add-relation keystone-mysql-router:shared-db keystone:shared-db
keystone:shared-db relation added at deployment time stores the Keystone
admin password in the cloud database. By default this password is generated
randomly but, for testing purposes, can be set via the
configuration option. This option can also be used to view and change the
This section covers Juju actions supported by the charm.
Actions allow specific operations to be performed on a per-unit basis. To
display action descriptions run
juju actions keystone. If the charm is not
deployed then see file
When more than one unit is deployed with the hacluster application the charm will bring up an HA active/active cluster.
There are two mutually exclusive high availability options: using virtual IP(s) or DNS. In both cases the hacluster subordinate charm is used to provide the Corosync and Pacemaker backend HA functionality.
Communication between Keystone and cloud services (as well as the OpenStack client) can be encrypted with TLS. Keystone also publishes API endpoints for the cloud (e.g. cinder, glance, keystone, neutron, nova, and placement), which may be TLS-based.
There are two methods for managing TLS keys and certificates:
Vault can set up private keys and server certificates for an application. It can also store a central CA certificate for the cloud. See the vault charm for more information.
Vault is the recommended method and is what will be covered here.
The private key and server certificate (and its signing) are enabled via a relation made to the vault application:
juju add-relation keystone:certificates vault:certificates
Other applications can enable TLS by adding their own relation to Vault. Vault will issue certificates to the application and Keystone will update the corresponding API endpoint from HTTP to HTTPS.
For example, the Placement API:
juju add-relation placement:certificates vault:certificates
Note: API endpoints can be listed with
openstack catalog list.
This charm supports the use of Juju Network Spaces, allowing the charm to be bound to network space configurations managed directly by Juju. This is only supported with Juju 2.0 and above.
API endpoints can be bound to distinct network spaces supporting the network separation of public, internal and admin endpoints.
Access to the underlying MySQL instance can also be bound to a specific space using the shared-db relation.
To use this feature, use the --bind option when deploying the charm:
juju deploy keystone --bind \ "public=public-space \ internal=internal-space \ admin=admin-space \ shared-db=internal-space"
Alternatively, these can also be provided as part of a Juju native bundle configuration:
keystone: charm: cs:xenial/keystone num_units: 1 bindings: public: public-space admin: admin-space internal: internal-space shared-db: internal-space
NOTE: Spaces must be configured in the underlying provider prior to attempting to use them.
NOTE: Existing deployments using
os\-\*-network configuration options will
continue to function; these options are preferred over any network space
binding provided if set.
Policy overrides is an advanced feature that allows an operator to override the default policy of an OpenStack service. The policies that the service supports, the defaults it implements in its code, and the defaults that a charm may include should all be clearly understood before proceeding.
Caution: It is possible to break the system (for tenants and other services) if policies are incorrectly applied to the service.
Policy statements are placed in a YAML file. This file (or files) is then (ZIP) compressed into a single file and used as an application resource. The override is then enabled via a Boolean charm option.
Here are the essential commands (filenames are arbitrary):
zip overrides.zip override-file.yaml juju attach-resource keystone policyd-override=overrides.zip juju config keystone use-policyd-override=true
The charm supports the following relations. They are primarily of use to developers:
identity-admin: Used by charms to obtain the credentials for the admin
user. This is intended for charms that automatically provision users,
identity-credentials: Used by charms to obtain Keystone credentials without
creating a service catalogue entry. Set ‘username’ only on the relation and
Keystone will set defaults and return authentication details. Possible
username: Username to be created.
project: Project (tenant) name to be created. Defaults to service’s project.
requested_roles: Comma-delimited list of roles to be created.
requested_grants: Comma-delimited list of roles to be granted. Defaults to Admin role.
domain: Keystone v3 domain the user will be created in. Defaults to the Default domain.
identity-notifications: Used to broadcast messages to services listening on
the corresponding interface.
identity-service: Used by API endpoints to request an entry in the Keystone
service catalogue and the endpoint template catalogue.
identity-servicerelation is not used by Horizon (see
When a relation is established Keystone receives the following data from the requesting API endpoint:
Keystone verifies that the requested service is supported (the list of supported services should remain updated). The following will occur for a supported service:
The API endpoint receives the token and is informed of the ports that Keystone is listening on.
keystone-service: Used only by Horizon. Horizon requests its configured
default role and Keystone responds with a token. Horizon also receives the
authentication and admin ports on which Keystone is listening.
nrpe-external-master: Used to generate Nagios checks.
password-security-compliance configuration option sets the
[security_compliance] section of Keystone’s configuration file.
The configuration option is a YAML dictionary, that is one level deep, with the following keys (and value formats).
lockout_failure_attempts: <int> lockout_duration: <int> disable_user_account_days_inactive: <int> change_password_upon_first_use: <boolean> password_expires_days: <int> password_regex: <string> password_regex_description: <string> unique_last_password_count: <int> minimum_password_age: <int>
It can be set by placing the keys and values in a file and then using the Juju command:
juju config keystone --file path/to/config.yaml
Note that, in this case, the
config.yaml file requires the YAML key
password-security-compliance: with the desired config keys and values on the
following lines, indented for a dictionary.
Note: Please ensure that the page Security compliance and PCI-DSS is consulted before setting these options.
The charm will protect service accounts (accounts requested by other units that are in the service domain) against being forced to change their password. Operators should also ensure that any other accounts are protected as per the above referenced note.
If the config value cannot be parsed as YAML and/or the options are not able to be parsed as their indicated types then the charm will enter a blocked state until the config value is changed.
As the keystone charm supports multiple releases of the OpenStack software, it also supports two Keystone token systems: UUID and Fernet. The capabilities are:
Fernet tokens were added to OpenStack to solve the problem of Keystone being required to persist tokens to a common database (cluster) like UUID tokens, and solve the problem of size for PKI or PKIZ tokens.
For further information, please see Fernet - Frequently Asked Questions.
Fernet keys are used to generate tokens; they are generated by Keystone and have an expiration date. The key repository is a directory, and each key is an integer number, with the highest number being the primary key. Key ‘0’ is the staged key, that will be the next primary. Other keys are secondary keys.
New tokens are only ever generated from the primary key, whilst the secondary keys are used to validate existing tokens. The staging key is not used to generate tokens but can be used to validate tokens as the staging key might be the new primary key on the master due to a rotation and the keys have not yet been synchronised across all the units.
Fernet keys need to be rotated at periodic intervals, and the keys need to be synchronised to each of the other keystone units. Keys should only be rotated on the master keystone unit and must be synchronised before they are rotated again. Over rotation occurs if a unit rotates its keys such that there is no suitable decoding key on another unit that can decode a token that has been generated on the master. This happens if two key rotations are done on the master before a synchronisation has been successfully performed. This should be avoided. Over rotations can also cause validation keys to be removed before a token’s expiration which would result in failed validations.
There are 3 parts to the Key Rotation Strategy:
There needs to be at least 3 keys as a minimum. The actual number of keys is determined by the token lifespan and the rotation frequency. The max_active_keys must be one greater than the token lifespan / rotation frequency
To quote from the FAQ:
The number of max_active_keys for a deployment can be determined by dividing the token lifetime, in hours, by the frequency of rotation in hours and adding two. Better illustrated as:
In the keystone charm, the rotation frequency is calculated
automatically from the
token-expiration and the
configuration parameters. For example, with an expiration of 24 hours and
6 active keys, the rotation frequency is calculated as:
token_expiration = 24 # actually 3600, as it's in seconds max_active_keys = 6 rotation_frequency = token_expiration / (max_active_keys - 2)
fernet-max-active-keys can never be less than 3 (which is
enforced in the charm), which would make the rotation frequency the same
as the token expiration time.
NOTE: To increase the rotation frequency, either increase
fernet-max-active-keys or reduce
token-expiration, and, to decrease
rotation frequency, do the opposite.
NOTE: If the configuration parameters are used to significantly reduce the
key lifetime, then it is possible to over-rotate the verification keys
such that services will hold tokens that cannot be verified but haven’t
yet expired. This should be avoided by only making small changes and
verifying that current tokens will still be able to be verified. In
fernet-max-active-keys affects the rotation time.
When an older keystone charm is upgraded to this version, NO change will
occur to the token system. That is, an ocata system will continue to use
UUID tokens. In order to change the token system to Fernet, change the
token-provider configuration item to
fernet. This will switch the
token system over. There may be a small outage in the control plane,
but the running instances will be unaffected.
Please report bugs on Launchpad.
For general charm questions refer to the OpenStack Charm Guide.