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Merge "Give the policy vision document a facelift"

changes/81/669181/12
Zuul 2 weeks ago
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4ff2796524
1 changed files with 128 additions and 93 deletions
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      doc/source/reference/policy-enforcement.rst

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doc/source/reference/policy-enforcement.rst View File

@@ -28,13 +28,13 @@ Problems with current system

The following is a list of issues with the existing policy enforcement system:

* Default policies lack exhaustive testing
* Mismatch between authoritative scope and resources
* Policies are inconsistently named
* Current defaults do not use default roles provided from keystone
* Policy enforcement is spread across multiple levels and components
* Some policies use hard-coded check strings
* Some APIs do not use granular rules
* `Testing default policies`_
* `Mismatched authorization`_
* `Inconsistent naming`_
* `Incorporating default roles`_
* `Compartmentalized policy enforcement`_
* `Refactoring hard-coded permission checks`_
* `Granular policy checks`_

Addressing the list above helps operators by:

@@ -55,89 +55,124 @@ Additionally, the following is a list of benefits to contributors:
3. Increased confidence in RBAC refactoring through exhaustive testing that
prevents regressions before they merge

Future of policy enforcement
----------------------------

The generic rule for all the improvement is keep V2 API back-compatible.
Because V2 API may be deprecated after V2.1 parity with V2. This can reduce
the risk we take. The improvement just for EC2 and V2.1 API. There isn't
any user for V2.1, as it isn't ready yet. We have to do change for EC2 API.
EC2 API won't be removed like v2 API. If we keep back-compatible for EC2 API
also, the old compute api layer checks won't be removed forever. EC2 API is
really small than Nova API. It's about 29 APIs without volume and image
related(those policy check done by cinder and glance). So it will affect user
less.

Enforcement policy at REST API layer
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The policy should be only enforced at REST API layer. This is clear for user
to know where the policy will be enforced. If the policy spread into multiple
layer of nova code, user won't know when and where the policy will be enforced
if they didn't have knowledge about nova code.

Remove all the permission checking under REST API layer. Policy will only be
enforced at REST API layer.

This will affect the EC2 API and V2.1 API, there are some API just have policy
enforcement at Compute/Network API layer, those policy will be move to API
layer and renamed.

Removes hard-code permission checks
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Hard-coded permission checks make it impossible to supply a configurable
policy. They should be removed in order to make nova auth completely
configurable.

This will affect EC2 API and Nova V2.1 API. User need update their policy
rule to match the old hard-code permission.

For Nova V2 API, the hard-code permission checks will be moved to REST API
layer to guarantee it won't break the back-compatibility. That may ugly
some hard-code permission check in API layer, but V2 API will be removed
once V2.1 API ready, so our choice will reduce the risk.

Use different prefix in policy rule name for EC2/V2/V2.1 API
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Currently all the APIs(Nova v2/v2.1 API, EC2 API) use same set of policy
rules. Especially there isn't obvious mapping between those policy rules
and EC2 API. User can know clearly which policy should be configured for
specific API.

Nova should provide different prefix for policy rule name that used to
group them, and put them in different policy configure file in policy.d

* EC2 API: Use prefix "ec2_api". The rule looks like "ec2_api:[action]"

* Nova V2 API: After we move to V2.1, we needn't spend time to change V2
api rule, and needn't to bother deployer upgrade their policy config. So
just keep V2 API policy rule named as before.

* Nova V2.1 API: We name the policy rule as
"os_compute_api:[extension]:[action]". The core API may be changed in
the future, so we needn't name them as "compute" or "compute_extension"
to distinguish the core or extension API.

This will affect EC2 API and V2.1 API. For EC2 API, it need deployer update
their policy config. For V2.1 API, there isn't any user yet, so there won't
any effect.

Existed Nova API being restricted
---------------------------------

Nova provide default policy rules for all the APIs. Operator should only make
the policy rule more permissive. If the Operator make the API to be restricted
that make break the existed API user or application. That's kind of
back-incompatible. SO Operator can free to add additional permission to the
existed API.

Policy Enforcement by user_id
-----------------------------

In the legacy v2 API, the policy enforces with target object, and some operators
implement user-based authorization based on that. Actually only project-based
authorization is well tested, the user based authorization is untested and
isn't supported by Nova. In the future, the nova will remove all the supports
for user-based authorization.
Testing default policies
------------------------

Testing default policies is important in protecting against authoritative
regression. Authoritative regression is when a change accidentally allows
someone to do something or see something they shouldn't. It can also be when a
change accidentally restricts a user from doing something they used to have the
authorization to perform. This testing is especially useful prior to
refactoring large parts of the policy system. For example, this level of
testing would be invaluable prior to pulling policy enforcement logic from the
database layer up to the API layer.

`Testing documentation`_ exists that describes the process for developing these
types of tests.

.. _Testing documentation: https://docs.openstack.org/keystone/latest/contributor/services.html#ruthless-testing

Mismatched authorization
------------------------

The compute API is rich in functionality and has grown to manage both physical
and virtual hardware. Some APIs were meant to assist operators while others
were specific to end users. Historically, nova used project-scoped tokens to
protect almost every API, regardless of the intended user. Using project-scoped
tokens to authorize requests for system-level APIs makes for undesirable
user-experience and is prone to overloading roles. For example, to prevent
every user from accessing hardware level APIs that would otherwise violate
tenancy requires operators to create a ``system-admin`` or ``super-admin``
role, then rewrite those system-level policies to incorporate that role. This
means users with that special role on a project could access system-level
resources that aren't even tracked against projects (hypervisor information is
an example of system-specific information.)

As of the Queens release, keystone supports a scope type dedicated to easing
this problem, called system scope. Consuming system scope across the compute
API results in fewer overloaded roles, less specialized authorization logic in
code, and simpler policies that expose more functionality to users without
violating tenancy. Please refer to keystone's `authorization scopes
documentation`_ to learn more about scopes and how to use them effectively.

.. _authorization scopes documentation: https://docs.openstack.org/keystone/latest/contributor/services.html#authorization-scopes

Inconsistent naming
-------------------

Inconsistent conventions for policy names are scattered across most OpenStack
services, nova included. Recently, there was an effort that introduced a
convention that factored in service names, resources, and use cases. This new
convention is applicable to nova policy names. The convention is formally
`documented`_ in oslo.policy and we can use policy `deprecation tooling`_ to
gracefully rename policies.

.. _documented: https://docs.openstack.org/oslo.policy/latest/user/usage.html#naming-policies
.. _deprecation tooling: https://docs.openstack.org/oslo.policy/latest/reference/api/oslo_policy.policy.html#oslo_policy.policy.DeprecatedRule

Incorporating default roles
---------------------------

Up until the Rocky release, keystone only ensured a single role called
``admin``
was available to the deployment upon installation. In Rocky, this support was
expanded to include ``member`` and ``reader`` roles as first-class citizens during
keystone's installation. This allows service developers to rely on these roles
and include them in their default policy definitions. Standardizing on a set of
role names for default policies increases interoperability between deployments
and decreases operator overhead.

You can find more information on default roles in the keystone `specification`_
or `developer documentation`_.

.. _specification: http://specs.openstack.org/openstack/keystone-specs/specs/keystone/rocky/define-default-roles.html
.. _developer documentation: https://docs.openstack.org/keystone/latest/contributor/services.html#reusable-default-roles

Compartmentalized policy enforcement
------------------------------------

Policy logic and processing is inherently sensitive and often complicated. It
is sensitive in that coding mistakes can lead to security vulnerabilities. It
is complicated in the resources and APIs it needs to protect and the vast
number of use cases it needs to support. These reasons make a case for
isolating policy enforcement and processing into a compartmentalized space, as
opposed to policy logic bleeding through to different layers of nova. Not
having all policy logic in a single place makes evolving the policy enforcement
system arduous and makes the policy system itself fragile.

Currently, the database and API components of nova contain policy logic. At
some point, we should refactor these systems into a single component that is
easier to maintain. Before we do this, we should consider approaches for
bolstering testing coverage, which ensures we are aware of or prevent policy
regressions. There are examples and documentation in API protection `testing
guides`_.

.. _testing guides: https://docs.openstack.org/keystone/latest/contributor/services.html#ruthless-testing

Refactoring hard-coded permission checks
----------------------------------------

The policy system in nova is designed to be configurable. Despite this design,
there are some APIs that have hard-coded checks for specific roles. This makes
configuration impossible, misleading, and frustrating for operators. Instead,
we can remove hard-coded policies and ensure a configuration-driven approach,
which reduces technical debt, increases consistency, and provides better
user-experience for operators. Additionally, moving hard-coded checks into
first-class policy rules let us use existing policy tooling to deprecate,
document, and evolve policies.

Granular policy checks
----------------------

Policies should be as granular as possible to ensure consistency and reasonable
defaults. Using a single policy to protect CRUD for an entire API is
restrictive because it prevents us from using default roles to make delegation
to that API flexible. For example, a policy for ``compute:foobar`` could be
broken into ``compute:foobar:create``, ``compute:foobar:update``,
``compute:foobar:list``, ``compute:foobar:get``, and ``compute:foobar:delete``.
Breaking policies down this way allows us to set read-only policies for
readable operations or use another default role for creation and management of
`foobar` resources. The oslo.policy library has `examples`_ that show how to do
this using deprecated policy rules.

.. _examples: https://docs.openstack.org/oslo.policy/latest/reference/api/oslo_policy.policy.html#oslo_policy.policy.DeprecatedRule

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